Florida Traffic Laws (Section 4)

316.1905: Electrical, mechanical, or other speed calculating devices; power of arrest; evidence. – (1) – Whenever any peace officer engaged in the enforcement of the motor vehicle laws of this state uses an electronic, electrical, mechanical, or other device used to determine the speed of a motor vehicle on any highway, road, street, or other public way, such device shall be of a type approved by the department and shall have been tested to determine that it is operating accurately. Tests for this purpose shall be made not less than once each 6 months, according to procedures and at regular intervals of time prescribed by the department.

(2) – Any police officer, upon receiving information relayed to him or her from a fellow officer stationed on the ground or in the air operating such a device that a driver of a vehicle has violated the speed laws of this state, may arrest the driver for violation of said laws where reasonable and proper identification of the vehicle and the speed of same has been communicated to the arresting officer.

(3)(a) – A witness otherwise qualified to testify shall be competent to give testimony against an accused violator of the motor vehicle laws of this state when such testimony is derived from the use of such an electronic, electrical, mechanical, or other device used in the calculation of speed, upon showing that the speed calculating device which was used had been tested. However, the operator of any visual average speed computer device shall first be certified as a competent operator of such device by the department.

(b) – Upon the production of a certificate, signed and witnessed, showing that such device was tested within the time period specified and that such device was working properly, a presumption is established to that effect unless the contrary shall be established by competent evidence.

(c) – Any person accused pursuant to the provisions of this section shall be entitled to have the officer actually operating the device appear in court and testify upon oral or written motion.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 313, ch. 95-148.

Note. – Former s. 316.058.

316.1906: Radar speed-measuring devices; evidence, admissibility. – (1) – DEFINITIONS. –

(a) – “Audio Doppler” means a backup audible signal that translates the radar’s Doppler shift into a tone which can be heard by the radar operator.

(b) – “Audio warning tone” refers to an auxiliary radar device which alerts the operator, by means of an audible tone, to the presence of a speed registration above a preset level.

(c) – “Automatic speed lock” refers to an auxiliary radar device which immediately holds any speed reading obtained above a preset level.

(d) – “Officer” means any:

1. – “Law enforcement officer” who is elected, appointed, or employed full time by any municipality or the state or any political subdivision thereof; who is vested with the authority to bear arms and make arrests; and whose primary responsibility is the prevention and detection of crime or the enforcement of the penal, criminal, traffic, or highway laws of the state;

2. – “Part-time law enforcement officer” who is employed or appointed less than full time, as defined by an employing agency, with or without compensation; who is vested with authority to bear arms and make arrests; and whose primary responsibility is the prevention and detection of crime or the enforcement of the penal, criminal, traffic, or highway laws of the state; or

3. – “Auxiliary law enforcement officer” who is employed or appointed, with or without compensation; who aids or assists a full-time or part-time law enforcement officer; and who, while under the direct supervision of a full-time or part-time law enforcement officer, has the authority to arrest and perform law enforcement functions.

(e) – “Radar” means law enforcement speed radar, any laser-based or microwave-based speed-measurement system employed by a law enforcement agency to detect the speed of motorists.

(2) – Evidence of the speed of a vehicle measured by any radar speed-measuring device shall be inadmissible in any proceeding with respect to an alleged violation of provisions of law regulating the lawful speed of vehicles, unless such evidence of speed is obtained by an officer who:

(a) – Has satisfactorily completed the radar training course established by the Criminal Justice Standards and Training Commission pursuant to s. 943.17(1)(b).

(b) – Has made an independent visual determination that the vehicle is operating in excess of the applicable speed limit.

(c) – Has written a citation based on evidence obtained from radar when conditions permit the clear assignment of speed to a single vehicle.

(d) – Is using radar which has no automatic speed locks and no audio alarms, unless disconnected or deactivated.

(e) – Is operating radar with audio Doppler engaged.

(f) – Is using a radar unit which meets the minimum design criteria for such units established by the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles.

History – s. 1, ch. 80-276; s. 24, ch. 84-258; s. 1, ch. 92-193.

316.191: Racing on highways. – (1) – As used in this section, the term:

(a) – “Conviction” means a determination of guilt that is the result of a plea or trial, regardless of whether adjudication is withheld.

(b) – “Drag race” means the operation of two or more motor vehicles from a point side by side at accelerating speeds in a competitive attempt to outdistance each other, or the operation of one or more motor vehicles over a common selected course, from the same point to the same point, for the purpose of comparing the relative speeds or power of acceleration of such motor vehicle or motor vehicles within a certain distance or time limit.

(c) – “Race” means the use of one or more motor vehicles in competition, arising from a challenge to demonstrate superiority of a motor vehicle or driver and the acceptance or competitive response to that challenge, either through a prior arrangement or in immediate response, in which the competitor attempts to outgain or outdistance another motor vehicle, to prevent another motor vehicle from passing, to arrive at a given destination ahead of another motor vehicle or motor vehicles, or to test the physical stamina or endurance of drivers over long-distance driving routes. A race may be prearranged or may occur through a competitive response to conduct on the part of one or more drivers which, under the totality of the circumstances, can reasonably be interpreted as a challenge to race.

(d) – “Spectator” means any person who is knowingly present at and views a drag race, when such presence is the result of an affirmative choice to attend or participate in the race. For purposes of determining whether or not an individual is a spectator, finders of fact shall consider the relationship between the racer and the individual, evidence of gambling or betting on the outcome of the race, and any other factor that would tend to show knowing attendance or participation.

(2) – A person may not:

(a) – Drive any motor vehicle, including any motorcycle, in any race, speed competition or contest, drag race or acceleration contest, test of physical endurance, or exhibition of speed or acceleration or for the purpose of making a speed record on any highway, roadway, or parking lot;

(b) – In any manner participate in, coordinate, facilitate, or collect moneys at any location for any such race, competition, contest, test, or exhibition;

(c) – Knowingly ride as a passenger in any such race, competition, contest, test, or exhibition; or

(d) – Purposefully cause the movement of traffic to slow or stop for any such race, competition, contest, test, or exhibition.

(3)(a) – Any person who violates subsection (2) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. Any person who violates subsection (2) shall pay a fine of not less than $500 and not more than $1,000, and the department shall revoke the driver license of a person so convicted for 1 year. A hearing may be requested pursuant to s. 322.271.

(b) – Any person who commits a second violation of subsection (2) within 5 years after the date of a prior violation that resulted in a conviction for a violation of subsection (2) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, and shall pay a fine of not less than $1,000 and not more than $3,000. The department shall also revoke the driver license of that person for 2 years. A hearing may be requested pursuant to s. 322.271.

(c) – Any person who commits a third or subsequent violation of subsection (2) within 5 years after the date of a prior violation that resulted in a conviction for a violation of subsection (2) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, and shall pay a fine of not less than $2,000 and not more than $5,000. The department shall also revoke the driver license of that person for 4 years. A hearing may be requested pursuant to s. 322.271.

(d) – In any case charging a violation of subsection (2), the court shall be provided a copy of the driving record of the person charged and may obtain any records from any other source to determine if one or more prior convictions of the person for a violation of subsection (2) have occurred within 5 years prior to the charged offense.

(4)(a) – A person may not be a spectator at any drag race prohibited under subsection (2).

(b) – A person who violates paragraph (a) commits a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a moving violation as provided in chapter 318.

(5) – Whenever a law enforcement officer determines that a person was engaged in a drag race or race, as described in subsection (1), the officer may immediately arrest and take such person into custody. The court may enter an order of impoundment or immobilization as a condition of incarceration or probation. Within 7 business days after the date the court issues the order of impoundment or immobilization, the clerk of the court must send notice by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the registered owner of the motor vehicle, if the registered owner is a person other than the defendant, and to each person of record claiming a lien against the motor vehicle.

(a) – Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, the impounding agency shall release a motor vehicle under the conditions provided in s. 316.193(6)(e), (f), (g), and (h), if the owner or agent presents a valid driver license at the time of pickup of the motor vehicle.

(b) – All costs and fees for the impoundment or immobilization, including the cost of notification, must be paid by the owner of the motor vehicle or, if the motor vehicle is leased or rented, by the person leasing or renting the motor vehicle, unless the impoundment or immobilization order is dismissed. All provisions of s. 713.78 shall apply.

(c) – Any motor vehicle used in violation of subsection (2) may be impounded for a period of 30 business days if a law enforcement officer has arrested and taken a person into custody pursuant to this subsection and the person being arrested is the registered owner or coowner of the motor vehicle. If the arresting officer finds that the criteria of this paragraph are met, the officer may immediately impound the motor vehicle. The law enforcement officer shall notify the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles of any impoundment for violation of this subsection in accordance with procedures established by the department. Paragraphs (a) and (b) shall be applicable to such impoundment.

(6) – Any motor vehicle used in violation of subsection (2) by any person within 5 years after the date of a prior conviction of that person for a violation under subsection (2) may be seized and forfeited as provided by the Florida Contraband Forfeiture Act. This subsection shall only be applicable if the owner of the motor vehicle is the person charged with violating subsection (2).

(7) – This section does not apply to licensed or duly authorized racetracks, drag strips, or other designated areas set aside by proper authorities for such purposes.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 138, ch. 99-248; s. 1, ch. 2002-251; s. 1, ch. 2005-226; s. 4, ch. 2008-176; ss. 28, 29, ch. 2009-85; s. 2, ch. 2010-189.

Note. – Former s. 316.186.

316.192: Reckless driving. – (1)(a) – Any person who drives any vehicle in willful or wanton disregard for the safety of persons or property is guilty of reckless driving.

(b) – Fleeing a law enforcement officer in a motor vehicle is reckless driving per se.

(2) – Except as provided in subsection (3), any person convicted of reckless driving shall be punished:

(a) – Upon a first conviction, by imprisonment for a period of not more than 90 days or by fine of not less than $25 nor more than $500, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

(b) – On a second or subsequent conviction, by imprisonment for not more than 6 months or by a fine of not less than $50 nor more than $1,000, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

(3) – Any person:

(a) – Who is in violation of subsection (1);

(b) – Who operates a vehicle; and

(c) – Who, by reason of such operation, causes:

1. – Damage to the property or person of another commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

2. – Serious bodily injury to another commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. The term “serious bodily injury” means an injury to another person, which consists of a physical condition that creates a substantial risk of death, serious personal disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ.

(4) – Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, $5 shall be added to a fine imposed pursuant to this section. The clerk shall remit the $5 to the Department of Revenue for deposit in the Emergency Medical Services Trust Fund.

(5) – In addition to any other penalty provided under this section, if the court has reasonable cause to believe that the use of alcohol, chemical substances set forth in s. 877.111, or substances controlled under chapter 893 contributed to a violation of this section, the court shall direct the person so convicted to complete a DUI program substance abuse education course and evaluation as provided in s. 316.193(5) within a reasonable period of time specified by the court. If the DUI program conducting such course and evaluation refers the person to an authorized substance abuse treatment provider for substance abuse evaluation and treatment, the directive of the court requiring completion of such course, evaluation, and treatment shall be enforced as provided in s. 322.245. The referral to treatment resulting from the DUI program evaluation may not be waived without a supporting independent psychosocial evaluation conducted by an authorized substance abuse treatment provider, appointed by the court, which shall have access to the DUI program psychosocial evaluation before the independent psychosocial evaluation is conducted. The court shall review the results and recommendations of both evaluations before determining the request for waiver. The offender shall bear the full cost of this procedure. If a person directed to a DUI program substance abuse education course and evaluation or referred to treatment under this subsection fails to report for or complete such course, evaluation, or treatment, the DUI program shall notify the court and the department of the failure. Upon receipt of such notice, the department shall cancel the person’s driving privilege, notwithstanding the terms of the court order or any suspension or revocation of the driving privilege. The department may reinstate the driving privilege upon verification from the DUI program that the education, evaluation, and treatment are completed. The department may temporarily reinstate the driving privilege on a restricted basis upon verification that the offender is currently participating in treatment and has completed the DUI education course and evaluation requirement. If the DUI program notifies the department of the second failure to complete treatment, the department shall reinstate the driving privilege only after notice of successful completion of treatment from the DUI program.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 23, ch. 85-167; s. 1, ch. 85-337; s. 1, ch. 88-5; s. 17, ch. 91-255; s. 31, ch. 92-78; s. 10, ch. 94-306; s. 4, ch. 99-234; s. 9, ch. 2001-122; s. 1, ch. 2001-147; s. 9, ch. 2006-290.

Note. – Former s. 316.029.

316.1923: Aggressive careless driving. – “Aggressive careless driving” means committing two or more of the following acts simultaneously or in succession:

(1) – Exceeding the posted speed as defined in s. 322.27(3)(d)5.b.

(2) – Unsafely or improperly changing lanes as defined in s. 316.085.

(3) – Following another vehicle too closely as defined in s. 316.0895(1).

(4) – Failing to yield the right-of-way as defined in s. 316.079, s. 316.0815, or s. 316.123.

(5) – Improperly passing as defined in s. 316.083, s. 316.084, or s. 316.085.

(6) – Violating traffic control and signal devices as defined in ss. 316.074 and 316.075.

History – s. 5, ch. 2001-147.

316.1925: Careless driving. – (1) – Any person operating a vehicle upon the streets or highways within the state shall drive the same in a careful and prudent manner, having regard for the width, grade, curves, corners, traffic, and all other attendant circumstances, so as not to endanger the life, limb, or property of any person. Failure to drive in such manner shall constitute careless driving and a violation of this section.

(2) – Any person who violates this section shall be cited for a moving violation, punishable as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; ss. 1, 6, ch. 76-31; s. 24, ch. 96-350.

Note. – Former s. 316.030.

316.1926: Additional offenses. – (1) – A person who violates the provisions of s. 316.2085(2) or (3) shall be cited for a moving violation, punishable as provided in chapter 318.

(2) – A person who exceeds the speed limit in excess of 50 miles per hour or more in violation of s. 316.183(2), s. 316.187, or s. 316.189 shall be cited for a moving violation, punishable as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 2008-117.

316.193: Driving under the influence; penalties. – (1) – A person is guilty of the offense of driving under the influence and is subject to punishment as provided in subsection (2) if the person is driving or in actual physical control of a vehicle within this state and:

(a) – The person is under the influence of alcoholic beverages, any chemical substance set forth in s. 877.111, or any substance controlled under chapter 893, when affected to the extent that the person’s normal faculties are impaired;

(b) – The person has a blood-alcohol level of 0.08 or more grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood; or

(c) – The person has a breath-alcohol level of 0.08 or more grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath.

(2)(a) – Except as provided in paragraph (b), subsection (3), or subsection (4), any person who is convicted of a violation of subsection (1) shall be punished:

1. – By a fine of:

a. – Not less than $500 or more than $1,000 for a first conviction.

b. – Not less than $1,000 or more than $2,000 for a second conviction; and

2. – By imprisonment for:

a. – Not more than 6 months for a first conviction.

b. – Not more than 9 months for a second conviction.

3. – For a second conviction, by mandatory placement for a period of at least 1 year, at the convicted person’s sole expense, of an ignition interlock device approved by the department in accordance with s. 316.1938 upon all vehicles that are individually or jointly leased or owned and routinely operated by the convicted person, when the convicted person qualifies for a permanent or restricted license. The installation of such device may not occur before July 1, 2003.

(b)1. – Any person who is convicted of a third violation of this section for an offense that occurs within 10 years after a prior conviction for a violation of this section commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. In addition, the court shall order the mandatory placement for a period of not less than 2 years, at the convicted person’s sole expense, of an ignition interlock device approved by the department in accordance with s. 316.1938 upon all vehicles that are individually or jointly leased or owned and routinely operated by the convicted person, when the convicted person qualifies for a permanent or restricted license. The installation of such device may not occur before July 1, 2003.

2. – Any person who is convicted of a third violation of this section for an offense that occurs more than 10 years after the date of a prior conviction for a violation of this section shall be punished by a fine of not less than $2,000 or more than $5,000 and by imprisonment for not more than 12 months. In addition, the court shall order the mandatory placement for a period of at least 2 years, at the convicted person’s sole expense, of an ignition interlock device approved by the department in accordance with s. 316.1938 upon all vehicles that are individually or jointly leased or owned and routinely operated by the convicted person, when the convicted person qualifies for a permanent or restricted license. The installation of such device may not occur before July 1, 2003.

3. – Any person who is convicted of a fourth or subsequent violation of this section, regardless of when any prior conviction for a violation of this section occurred, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. However, the fine imposed for such fourth or subsequent violation may be not less than $2,000.

(c) – In addition to the penalties in paragraph (a), the court may order placement, at the convicted person’s sole expense, of an ignition interlock device approved by the department in accordance with s. 316.1938 for at least 6 continuous months upon all vehicles that are individually or jointly leased or owned and routinely operated by the convicted person if, at the time of the offense, the person had a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level of .08 or higher.

(3) – Any person:

(a) – Who is in violation of subsection (1);

(b) – Who operates a vehicle; and

(c) – Who, by reason of such operation, causes or contributes to causing:

1. – Damage to the property or person of another commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

2. – Serious bodily injury to another, as defined in s. 316.1933, commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

3. – The death of any human being or unborn child commits DUI manslaughter, and commits:

a. – A felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

b. – A felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if:

(I) – At the time of the crash, the person knew, or should have known, that the crash occurred; and

(II) – The person failed to give information and render aid as required by s. 316.062.

For purposes of this subsection, the term “unborn child” has the same meaning as provided in s. 775.021(5). A person who is convicted of DUI manslaughter shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 4 years.

(4) – Any person who is convicted of a violation of subsection (1) and who has a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level of 0.15 or higher, or any person who is convicted of a violation of subsection (1) and who at the time of the offense was accompanied in the vehicle by a person under the age of 18 years, shall be punished:

(a) – By a fine of:

1. – Not less than $1,000 or more than $2,000 for a first conviction.

2. – Not less than $2,000 or more than $4,000 for a second conviction.

3. – Not less than $4,000 for a third or subsequent conviction.

(b) – By imprisonment for:

1. – Not more than 9 months for a first conviction.

2. – Not more than 12 months for a second conviction.

For the purposes of this subsection, only the instant offense is required to be a violation of subsection (1) by a person who has a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level of 0.15 or higher.

(c) – In addition to the penalties in paragraphs (a) and (b), the court shall order the mandatory placement, at the convicted person’s sole expense, of an ignition interlock device approved by the department in accordance with s. 316.1938 upon all vehicles that are individually or jointly leased or owned and routinely operated by the convicted person for not less than 6 continuous months for the first offense and for not less than 2 continuous years for a second offense, when the convicted person qualifies for a permanent or restricted license.

(5) – The court shall place all offenders convicted of violating this section on monthly reporting probation and shall require completion of a substance abuse course conducted by a DUI program licensed by the department under s. 322.292, which must include a psychosocial evaluation of the offender. If the DUI program refers the offender to an authorized substance abuse treatment provider for substance abuse treatment, in addition to any sentence or fine imposed under this section, completion of all such education, evaluation, and treatment is a condition of reporting probation. The offender shall assume reasonable costs for such education, evaluation, and treatment. The referral to treatment resulting from a psychosocial evaluation shall not be waived without a supporting independent psychosocial evaluation conducted by an authorized substance abuse treatment provider appointed by the court, which shall have access to the DUI program’s psychosocial evaluation before the independent psychosocial evaluation is conducted. The court shall review the results and recommendations of both evaluations before determining the request for waiver. The offender shall bear the full cost of this procedure. The term “substance abuse” means the abuse of alcohol or any substance named or described in Schedules I through V of s. 893.03. If an offender referred to treatment under this subsection fails to report for or complete such treatment or fails to complete the DUI program substance abuse education course and evaluation, the DUI program shall notify the court and the department of the failure. Upon receipt of the notice, the department shall cancel the offender’s driving privilege, notwithstanding the terms of the court order or any suspension or revocation of the driving privilege. The department may temporarily reinstate the driving privilege on a restricted basis upon verification from the DUI program that the offender is currently participating in treatment and the DUI education course and evaluation requirement has been completed. If the DUI program notifies the department of the second failure to complete treatment, the department shall reinstate the driving privilege only after notice of completion of treatment from the DUI program. The organization that conducts the substance abuse education and evaluation may not provide required substance abuse treatment unless a waiver has been granted to that organization by the department. A waiver may be granted only if the department determines, in accordance with its rules, that the service provider that conducts the substance abuse education and evaluation is the most appropriate service provider and is licensed under chapter 397 or is exempt from such licensure. A statistical referral report shall be submitted quarterly to the department by each organization authorized to provide services under this section.

(6) – With respect to any person convicted of a violation of subsection (1), regardless of any penalty imposed pursuant to subsection (2), subsection (3), or subsection (4):

(a) – For the first conviction, the court shall place the defendant on probation for a period not to exceed 1 year and, as a condition of such probation, shall order the defendant to participate in public service or a community work project for a minimum of 50 hours. The court may order a defendant to pay a fine of $10 for each hour of public service or community work otherwise required only if the court finds that the residence or location of the defendant at the time public service or community work is required or the defendant’s employment obligations would create an undue hardship for the defendant. However, the total period of probation and incarceration may not exceed 1 year. The court must also, as a condition of probation, order the impoundment or immobilization of the vehicle that was operated by or in the actual control of the defendant or any one vehicle registered in the defendant’s name at the time of impoundment or immobilization, for a period of 10 days or for the unexpired term of any lease or rental agreement that expires within 10 days. The impoundment or immobilization must not occur concurrently with the incarceration of the defendant. The impoundment or immobilization order may be dismissed in accordance with paragraph (e), paragraph (f), paragraph (g), or paragraph (h).

(b) – For the second conviction for an offense that occurs within a period of 5 years after the date of a prior conviction for violation of this section, the court shall order imprisonment for not less than 10 days. The court must also, as a condition of probation, order the impoundment or immobilization of all vehicles owned by the defendant at the time of impoundment or immobilization, for a period of 30 days or for the unexpired term of any lease or rental agreement that expires within 30 days. The impoundment or immobilization must not occur concurrently with the incarceration of the defendant and must occur concurrently with the driver license revocation imposed under s. 322.28(2)(a)2. The impoundment or immobilization order may be dismissed in accordance with paragraph (e), paragraph (f), paragraph (g), or paragraph (h). At least 48 hours of confinement must be consecutive.

(c) – For the third or subsequent conviction for an offense that occurs within a period of 10 years after the date of a prior conviction for violation of this section, the court shall order imprisonment for not less than 30 days. The court must also, as a condition of probation, order the impoundment or immobilization of all vehicles owned by the defendant at the time of impoundment or immobilization, for a period of 90 days or for the unexpired term of any lease or rental agreement that expires within 90 days. The impoundment or immobilization must not occur concurrently with the incarceration of the defendant and must occur concurrently with the driver license revocation imposed under s. 322.28(2)(a)3. The impoundment or immobilization order may be dismissed in accordance with paragraph (e), paragraph (f), paragraph (g), or paragraph (h). At least 48 hours of confinement must be consecutive.

(d) – The court must at the time of sentencing the defendant issue an order for the impoundment or immobilization of a vehicle. The order of impoundment or immobilization must include the name and telephone numbers of all immobilization agencies meeting all of the conditions of subsection (13). Within 7 business days after the date that the court issues the order of impoundment or immobilization, the clerk of the court must send notice by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the registered owner of each vehicle, if the registered owner is a person other than the defendant, and to each person of record claiming a lien against the vehicle.

(e) – A person who owns but was not operating the vehicle when the offense occurred may submit to the court a police report indicating that the vehicle was stolen at the time of the offense or documentation of having purchased the vehicle after the offense was committed from an entity other than the defendant or the defendant’s agent. If the court finds that the vehicle was stolen or that the sale was not made to circumvent the order and allow the defendant continued access to the vehicle, the order must be dismissed and the owner of the vehicle will incur no costs. If the court denies the request to dismiss the order of impoundment or immobilization, the petitioner may request an evidentiary hearing.

(f) – A person who owns but was not operating the vehicle when the offense occurred, and whose vehicle was stolen or who purchased the vehicle after the offense was committed directly from the defendant or the defendant’s agent, may request an evidentiary hearing to determine whether the impoundment or immobilization should occur. If the court finds that either the vehicle was stolen or the purchase was made without knowledge of the offense, that the purchaser had no relationship to the defendant other than through the transaction, and that such purchase would not circumvent the order and allow the defendant continued access to the vehicle, the order must be dismissed and the owner of the vehicle will incur no costs.

(g) – The court shall also dismiss the order of impoundment or immobilization of the vehicle if the court finds that the family of the owner of the vehicle has no other private or public means of transportation.

(h) – The court may also dismiss the order of impoundment or immobilization of any vehicles that are owned by the defendant but that are operated solely by the employees of the defendant or any business owned by the defendant.

(i) – The court may also dismiss the order of impoundment or immobilization if the defendant provides proof to the satisfaction of the court that a functioning, certified ignition interlock device has been installed upon all vehicles that are individually or jointly leased or owned and routinely operated by the convicted person.

(j)1. – Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, s. 316.1937, and s. 322.2715 relating to ignition interlock devices required for second or subsequent offenders, in order to strengthen the pretrial and posttrial options available to prosecutors and judges, the court may order, if deemed appropriate, that a person participate in a qualified sobriety and drug monitoring program, as defined in subparagraph 2., in addition to the ignition interlock device requirement. Participation shall be at the person’s sole expense.

2. – As used in this paragraph, the term “qualified sobriety and drug monitoring program” means an evidence-based program, approved by the department, in which participants are regularly tested for alcohol and drug use. As the court deems appropriate, the program may monitor alcohol or drugs through one or more of the following modalities: breath testing twice a day; continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring in cases of hardship; or random blood, breath, urine, or oral fluid testing. Testing modalities that provide the best ability to sanction a violation as close in time as reasonably feasible to the occurrence of the violation should be given preference. This paragraph does not preclude a court from ordering an ignition interlock device as a testing modality.

3. – For purposes of this paragraph, the term “evidence-based program” means a program that satisfies the requirements of at least two of the following:

a. – The program is included in the federal registry of evidence-based programs and practices.

b. – The program has been reported in a peer-reviewed journal as having positive effects on the primary targeted outcome.

c. – The program has been documented as effective by informed experts and other sources.

(k) – All costs and fees for the impoundment or immobilization, including the cost of notification, must be paid by the owner of the vehicle or, if the vehicle is leased or rented, by the person leasing or renting the vehicle, unless the impoundment or immobilization order is dismissed. All provisions of s. 713.78 shall apply. The costs and fees for the impoundment or immobilization must be paid directly to the person impounding or immobilizing the vehicle.

(l) – The person who owns a vehicle that is impounded or immobilized under this paragraph, or a person who has a lien of record against such a vehicle and who has not requested a review of the impoundment pursuant to paragraph (e), paragraph (f), or paragraph (g), may, within 10 days after the date that person has knowledge of the location of the vehicle, file a complaint in the county in which the owner resides to determine whether the vehicle was wrongfully taken or withheld from the owner or lienholder. Upon the filing of a complaint, the owner or lienholder may have the vehicle released by posting with the court a bond or other adequate security equal to the amount of the costs and fees for impoundment or immobilization, including towing or storage, to ensure the payment of such costs and fees if the owner or lienholder does not prevail. When the bond is posted and the fee is paid as set forth in s. 28.24, the clerk of the court shall issue a certificate releasing the vehicle. At the time of release, after reasonable inspection, the owner or lienholder must give a receipt to the towing or storage company indicating any loss or damage to the vehicle or to the contents of the vehicle.

(m) – A defendant, in the court’s discretion, may be required to serve all or any portion of a term of imprisonment to which the defendant has been sentenced pursuant to this section in a residential alcoholism treatment program or a residential drug abuse treatment program. Any time spent in such a program must be credited by the court toward the term of imprisonment.

For the purposes of this section, any conviction for a violation of s. 327.35; a previous conviction for the violation of former s. 316.1931, former s. 860.01, or former s. 316.028; or a previous conviction outside this state for driving under the influence, driving while intoxicated, driving with an unlawful blood-alcohol level, driving with an unlawful breath-alcohol level, or any other similar alcohol-related or drug-related traffic offense, is also considered a previous conviction for violation of this section. However, in satisfaction of the fine imposed pursuant to this section, the court may, upon a finding that the defendant is financially unable to pay either all or part of the fine, order that the defendant participate for a specified additional period of time in public service or a community work project in lieu of payment of that portion of the fine which the court determines the defendant is unable to pay. In determining such additional sentence, the court shall consider the amount of the unpaid portion of the fine and the reasonable value of the services to be ordered; however, the court may not compute the reasonable value of services at a rate less than the federal minimum wage at the time of sentencing.

(7) – A conviction under this section does not bar any civil suit for damages against the person so convicted.

(8) – At the arraignment, or in conjunction with any notice of arraignment provided by the clerk of the court, the clerk shall provide any person charged with a violation of this section with notice that upon conviction the court shall suspend or revoke the offender’s driver license and that the offender should make arrangements for transportation at any proceeding in which the court may take such action. Failure to provide such notice does not affect the court’s suspension or revocation of the offender’s driver license.

(9) – A person who is arrested for a violation of this section may not be released from custody:

(a) – Until the person is no longer under the influence of alcoholic beverages, any chemical substance set forth in s. 877.111, or any substance controlled under chapter 893 and affected to the extent that his or her normal faculties are impaired;

(b) – Until the person’s blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level is less than 0.05; or

(c) – Until 8 hours have elapsed from the time the person was arrested.

(10) – The rulings of the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles under s. 322.2615 shall not be considered in any trial for a violation of this section. Testimony or evidence from the administrative proceedings or any written statement submitted by a person in his or her request for administrative review is inadmissible into evidence or for any other purpose in any criminal proceeding, unless timely disclosed in criminal discovery pursuant to Rule 3.220, Florida Rules of Criminal Procedure.

(11) – The Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles is directed to adopt rules providing for the implementation of the use of ignition interlock devices.

(12) – If the records of the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles show that the defendant has been previously convicted of the offense of driving under the influence, that evidence is sufficient by itself to establish that prior conviction for driving under the influence. However, such evidence may be contradicted or rebutted by other evidence. This presumption may be considered along with any other evidence presented in deciding whether the defendant has been previously convicted of the offense of driving under the influence.

(13) – If personnel of the circuit court or the sheriff do not immobilize vehicles, only immobilization agencies that meet the conditions of this subsection shall immobilize vehicles in that judicial circuit.

(a) – The immobilization agency responsible for immobilizing vehicles in that judicial circuit shall be subject to strict compliance with all of the following conditions and restrictions:

1. – Any immobilization agency engaged in the business of immobilizing vehicles shall provide to the clerk of the court a signed affidavit attesting that the agency:

a. – Has verifiable experience in immobilizing vehicles;

b. – Maintains accurate and complete records of all payments for the immobilization, copies of all documents pertaining to the court’s order of impoundment or immobilization, and any other documents relevant to each immobilization. Such records must be maintained by the immobilization agency for at least 3 years; and

c. – Employs and assigns persons to immobilize vehicles that meet the requirements established in subparagraph 2.

2. – The person who immobilizes a vehicle must:

a. – Not have been adjudicated incapacitated under s. 744.331, or a similar statute in another state, unless his or her capacity has been judicially restored; involuntarily placed in a treatment facility for the mentally ill under chapter 394, or a similar law in any other state, unless his or her competency has been judicially restored; or diagnosed as having an incapacitating mental illness unless a psychologist or psychiatrist licensed in this state certifies that he or she does not currently suffer from the mental illness.

b. – Not be a chronic and habitual user of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties are impaired; not have been committed under chapter 397, former chapter 396, or a similar law in any other state; not have been found to be a habitual offender under s. 856.011(3), or a similar law in any other state; or not have had any convictions under this section, or a similar law in any other state, within 2 years before the affidavit is submitted.

c. – Not have been committed for controlled substance abuse or have been found guilty of a crime under chapter 893, or a similar law in any other state, relating to controlled substances in any other state.

d. – Not have been found guilty of or entered a plea of guilty or nolo contendere to, regardless of adjudication, or been convicted of a felony, unless his or her civil rights have been restored.

e. – Be a citizen or legal resident alien of the United States or have been granted authorization to seek employment in this country by the United States Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services.

(b) – The immobilization agency shall conduct a state criminal history check through the Florida Department of Law Enforcement to ensure that the person hired to immobilize a vehicle meets the requirements in sub-subparagraph (a)2.d.

(c) – A person who violates paragraph (a) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(14) – As used in this chapter, the term:

(a) – “Immobilization,” “immobilizing,” or “immobilize” means the act of installing a vehicle antitheft device on the steering wheel of a vehicle, the act of placing a tire lock or wheel clamp on a vehicle, or a governmental agency’s act of taking physical possession of the license tag and vehicle registration rendering a vehicle legally inoperable to prevent any person from operating the vehicle pursuant to an order of impoundment or immobilization under subsection (6).

(b) – “Immobilization agency” or “immobilization agencies” means any person, firm, company, agency, organization, partnership, corporation, association, trust, or other business entity of any kind whatsoever that meets all of the conditions of subsection (13).

(c) – “Impoundment,” “impounding,” or “impound” means the act of storing a vehicle at a storage facility pursuant to an order of impoundment or immobilization under subsection (6) where the person impounding the vehicle exercises control, supervision, and responsibility over the vehicle.

(d) – “Person” means any individual, firm, company, agency, organization, partnership, corporation, association, trust, or other business entity of any kind whatsoever.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 19, ch. 73-331; s. 1, ch. 74-384; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 1, ch. 79-408; s. 1, ch. 80-343; s. 2, ch. 82-155; s. 1, ch. 82-403; s. 2, ch. 83-187; s. 1, ch. 83-228; s. 1, ch. 84-359; s. 24, ch. 85-167; s. 2, ch. 85-337; s. 1, ch. 86-296; s. 2, ch. 88-5; s. 5, ch. 88-82; s. 8, ch. 88-196; s. 8, ch. 88-324; s. 60, ch. 88-381; s. 7, ch. 89-3; ss. 1, 18, ch. 91-255; s. 32, ch. 92-78; ss. 1, 11, ch. 93-124; s. 3, ch. 93-246; s. 1, ch. 94-324; s. 895, ch. 95-148; s. 1, ch. 95-186; s. 4, ch. 95-333; s. 12, ch. 95-408; s. 3, ch. 96-330; s. 2, ch. 96-413; s. 48, ch. 97-100; s. 97, ch. 97-264; s. 25, ch. 97-271; ss. 6, 13, ch. 98-324; s. 5, ch. 99-234; s. 139, ch. 99-248; s. 4, ch. 2000-313; s. 10, ch. 2000-320; s. 2, ch. 2002-78; s. 1, ch. 2002-263; s. 1, ch. 2004-379; s. 1, ch. 2005-119; s. 3, ch. 2007-211; s. 29, ch. 2008-111; s. 5, ch. 2008-176; s. 5, ch. 2009-138; s. 10, ch. 2009-206; s. 5, ch. 2010-223; s. 3, ch. 2014-194; s. 8, ch. 2014-216; s. 3, ch. 2015-34.

Note. – Former s. 316.028.

316.1932: Tests for alcohol, chemical substances, or controlled substances; implied consent; refusal. – (1)(a)1.a. – Any person who accepts the privilege extended by the laws of this state of operating a motor vehicle within this state is, by so operating such vehicle, deemed to have given his or her consent to submit to an approved chemical test or physical test including, but not limited to, an infrared light test of his or her breath for the purpose of determining the alcoholic content of his or her blood or breath if the person is lawfully arrested for any offense allegedly committed while the person was driving or was in actual physical control of a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcoholic beverages. The chemical or physical breath test must be incidental to a lawful arrest and administered at the request of a law enforcement officer who has reasonable cause to believe such person was driving or was in actual physical control of the motor vehicle within this state while under the influence of alcoholic beverages. The administration of a breath test does not preclude the administration of another type of test. The person shall be told that his or her failure to submit to any lawful test of his or her breath will result in the suspension of the person’s privilege to operate a motor vehicle for a period of 1 year for a first refusal, or for a period of 18 months if the driving privilege of such person has been previously suspended as a result of a refusal to submit to such a test or tests, and shall also be told that if he or she refuses to submit to a lawful test of his or her breath and his or her driving privilege has been previously suspended for a prior refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her breath, urine, or blood, he or she commits a misdemeanor in addition to any other penalties. The refusal to submit to a chemical or physical breath test upon the request of a law enforcement officer as provided in this section is admissible into evidence in any criminal proceeding.

b. – Any person who accepts the privilege extended by the laws of this state of operating a motor vehicle within this state is, by so operating such vehicle, deemed to have given his or her consent to submit to a urine test for the purpose of detecting the presence of chemical substances as set forth in s. 877.111 or controlled substances if the person is lawfully arrested for any offense allegedly committed while the person was driving or was in actual physical control of a motor vehicle while under the influence of chemical substances or controlled substances. The urine test must be incidental to a lawful arrest and administered at a detention facility or any other facility, mobile or otherwise, which is equipped to administer such tests at the request of a law enforcement officer who has reasonable cause to believe such person was driving or was in actual physical control of a motor vehicle within this state while under the influence of chemical substances or controlled substances. The urine test shall be administered at a detention facility or any other facility, mobile or otherwise, which is equipped to administer such test in a reasonable manner that will ensure the accuracy of the specimen and maintain the privacy of the individual involved. The administration of a urine test does not preclude the administration of another type of test. The person shall be told that his or her failure to submit to any lawful test of his or her urine will result in the suspension of the person’s privilege to operate a motor vehicle for a period of 1 year for the first refusal, or for a period of 18 months if the driving privilege of such person has been previously suspended as a result of a refusal to submit to such a test or tests, and shall also be told that if he or she refuses to submit to a lawful test of his or her urine and his or her driving privilege has been previously suspended for a prior refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her breath, urine, or blood, he or she commits a misdemeanor in addition to any other penalties. The refusal to submit to a urine test upon the request of a law enforcement officer as provided in this section is admissible into evidence in any criminal proceeding.

2. – The Alcohol Testing Program within the Department of Law Enforcement is responsible for the regulation of the operation, inspection, and registration of breath test instruments utilized under the driving and boating under the influence provisions and related provisions located in this chapter and chapters 322 and 327. The program is responsible for the regulation of the individuals who operate, inspect, and instruct on the breath test instruments utilized in the driving and boating under the influence provisions and related provisions located in this chapter and chapters 322 and 327. The program is further responsible for the regulation of blood analysts who conduct blood testing to be utilized under the driving and boating under the influence provisions and related provisions located in this chapter and chapters 322 and 327. The program shall:

a. – Establish uniform criteria for the issuance of permits to breath test operators, agency inspectors, instructors, blood analysts, and instruments.

b. – Have the authority to permit breath test operators, agency inspectors, instructors, blood analysts, and instruments.

c. – Have the authority to discipline and suspend, revoke, or renew the permits of breath test operators, agency inspectors, instructors, blood analysts, and instruments.

d. – Establish uniform requirements for instruction and curricula for the operation and inspection of approved instruments.

e. – Have the authority to specify one approved curriculum for the operation and inspection of approved instruments.

f. – Establish a procedure for the approval of breath test operator and agency inspector classes.

g. – Have the authority to approve or disapprove breath test instruments and accompanying paraphernalia for use pursuant to the driving and boating under the influence provisions and related provisions located in this chapter and chapters 322 and 327.

h. – With the approval of the executive director of the Department of Law Enforcement, make and enter into contracts and agreements with other agencies, organizations, associations, corporations, individuals, or federal agencies as are necessary, expedient, or incidental to the performance of duties.

i. – Issue final orders which include findings of fact and conclusions of law and which constitute final agency action for the purpose of chapter 120.

j. – Enforce compliance with the provisions of this section through civil or administrative proceedings.

k. – Make recommendations concerning any matter within the purview of this section, this chapter, chapter 322, or chapter 327.

l. – Promulgate rules for the administration and implementation of this section, including definitions of terms.

m. – Consult and cooperate with other entities for the purpose of implementing the mandates of this section.

n. – Have the authority to approve the type of blood test utilized under the driving and boating under the influence provisions and related provisions located in this chapter and chapters 322 and 327.

o. – Have the authority to specify techniques and methods for breath alcohol testing and blood testing utilized under the driving and boating under the influence provisions and related provisions located in this chapter and chapters 322 and 327.

p. – Have the authority to approve repair facilities for the approved breath test instruments, including the authority to set criteria for approval.

Nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede provisions in this chapter and chapters 322 and 327. The specifications in this section are derived from the power and authority previously and currently possessed by the Department of Law Enforcement and are enumerated to conform with the mandates of chapter 99-379, Laws of Florida.

(b)1. – The blood-alcohol level must be based upon grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood. The breath-alcohol level must be based upon grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath.

2. – An analysis of a person’s breath, in order to be considered valid under this section, must have been performed substantially according to methods approved by the Department of Law Enforcement. For this purpose, the department may approve satisfactory techniques or methods. Any insubstantial differences between approved techniques and actual testing procedures in any individual case do not render the test or test results invalid.

(c) – Any person who accepts the privilege extended by the laws of this state of operating a motor vehicle within this state is, by operating such vehicle, deemed to have given his or her consent to submit to an approved blood test for the purpose of determining the alcoholic content of the blood or a blood test for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances as provided in this section if there is reasonable cause to believe the person was driving or in actual physical control of a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcoholic beverages or chemical or controlled substances and the person appears for treatment at a hospital, clinic, or other medical facility and the administration of a breath or urine test is impractical or impossible. As used in this paragraph, the term “other medical facility” includes an ambulance or other medical emergency vehicle. The blood test shall be performed in a reasonable manner. Any person who is incapable of refusal by reason of unconsciousness or other mental or physical condition is deemed not to have withdrawn his or her consent to such test. A blood test may be administered whether or not the person is told that his or her failure to submit to such a blood test will result in the suspension of the person’s privilege to operate a motor vehicle upon the public highways of this state and that a refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her blood, if his or her driving privilege has been previously suspended for refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her breath, urine, or blood, is a misdemeanor. Any person who is capable of refusal shall be told that his or her failure to submit to such a blood test will result in the suspension of the person’s privilege to operate a motor vehicle for a period of 1 year for a first refusal, or for a period of 18 months if the driving privilege of the person has been suspended previously as a result of a refusal to submit to such a test or tests, and that a refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her blood, if his or her driving privilege has been previously suspended for a prior refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her breath, urine, or blood, is a misdemeanor. The refusal to submit to a blood test upon the request of a law enforcement officer is admissible in evidence in any criminal proceeding.

(d) – If the arresting officer does not request a chemical or physical breath test of the person arrested for any offense allegedly committed while the person was driving or was in actual physical control of a motor vehicle while under the influence of alcoholic beverages or controlled substances, such person may request the arresting officer to have a chemical or physical test made of the arrested person’s breath or a test of the urine or blood for the purpose of determining the alcoholic content of the person’s blood or breath or the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances; and, if so requested, the arresting officer shall have the test performed.

(e)1. – By applying for a driver license and by accepting and using a driver license, the person holding the driver license is deemed to have expressed his or her consent to the provisions of this section.

2. – A nonresident or any other person driving in a status exempt from the requirements of the driver license law, by his or her act of driving in such exempt status, is deemed to have expressed his or her consent to the provisions of this section.

3. – A warning of the consent provision of this section shall be printed on each new or renewed driver license.

(f)1. – The tests determining the weight of alcohol in the defendant’s blood or breath shall be administered at the request of a law enforcement officer substantially in accordance with rules of the Department of Law Enforcement. Such rules must specify precisely the test or tests that are approved by the Department of Law Enforcement for reliability of result and ease of administration, and must provide an approved method of administration which must be followed in all such tests given under this section. However, the failure of a law enforcement officer to request the withdrawal of blood does not affect the admissibility of a test of blood withdrawn for medical purposes.

2.a. – Only a physician, certified paramedic, registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, other personnel authorized by a hospital to draw blood, or duly licensed clinical laboratory director, supervisor, technologist, or technician, acting at the request of a law enforcement officer, may withdraw blood for the purpose of determining its alcoholic content or the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances therein. However, the failure of a law enforcement officer to request the withdrawal of blood does not affect the admissibility of a test of blood withdrawn for medical purposes.

b. – Notwithstanding any provision of law pertaining to the confidentiality of hospital records or other medical records, if a health care provider, who is providing medical care in a health care facility to a person injured in a motor vehicle crash, becomes aware, as a result of any blood test performed in the course of that medical treatment, that the person’s blood-alcohol level meets or exceeds the blood-alcohol level specified in s. 316.193(1)(b), the health care provider may notify any law enforcement officer or law enforcement agency. Any such notice must be given within a reasonable time after the health care provider receives the test result. Any such notice shall be used only for the purpose of providing the law enforcement officer with reasonable cause to request the withdrawal of a blood sample pursuant to this section.

c. – The notice shall consist only of the name of the person being treated, the name of the person who drew the blood, the blood-alcohol level indicated by the test, and the date and time of the administration of the test.

d. – Nothing contained in s. 395.3025(4), s. 456.057, or any applicable practice act affects the authority to provide notice under this section, and the health care provider is not considered to have breached any duty owed to the person under s. 395.3025(4), s. 456.057, or any applicable practice act by providing notice or failing to provide notice. It shall not be a breach of any ethical, moral, or legal duty for a health care provider to provide notice or fail to provide notice.

e. – A civil, criminal, or administrative action may not be brought against any person or health care provider participating in good faith in the provision of notice or failure to provide notice as provided in this section. Any person or health care provider participating in the provision of notice or failure to provide notice as provided in this section shall be immune from any civil or criminal liability and from any professional disciplinary action with respect to the provision of notice or failure to provide notice under this section. Any such participant has the same immunity with respect to participating in any judicial proceedings resulting from the notice or failure to provide notice.

3. – The person tested may, at his or her own expense, have a physician, registered nurse, other personnel authorized by a hospital to draw blood, or duly licensed clinical laboratory director, supervisor, technologist, or technician, or other person of his or her own choosing administer an independent test in addition to the test administered at the direction of the law enforcement officer for the purpose of determining the amount of alcohol in the person’s blood or breath or the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances at the time alleged, as shown by chemical analysis of his or her blood or urine, or by chemical or physical test of his or her breath. The failure or inability to obtain an independent test by a person does not preclude the admissibility in evidence of the test taken at the direction of the law enforcement officer. The law enforcement officer shall not interfere with the person’s opportunity to obtain the independent test and shall provide the person with timely telephone access to secure the test, but the burden is on the person to arrange and secure the test at the person’s own expense.

4. – Upon the request of the person tested, full information concerning the results of the test taken at the direction of the law enforcement officer shall be made available to the person or his or her attorney. Full information is limited to the following:

a. – The type of test administered and the procedures followed.

b. – The time of the collection of the blood or breath sample analyzed.

c. – The numerical results of the test indicating the alcohol content of the blood and breath.

d. – The type and status of any permit issued by the Department of Law Enforcement which was held by the person who performed the test.

e. – If the test was administered by means of a breath testing instrument, the date of performance of the most recent required inspection of such instrument.

Full information does not include manuals, schematics, or software of the instrument used to test the person or any other material that is not in the actual possession of the state. Additionally, full information does not include information in the possession of the manufacturer of the test instrument.

5. – A hospital, clinical laboratory, medical clinic, or similar medical institution or physician, certified paramedic, registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, other personnel authorized by a hospital to draw blood, or duly licensed clinical laboratory director, supervisor, technologist, or technician, or other person assisting a law enforcement officer does not incur any civil or criminal liability as a result of the withdrawal or analysis of a blood or urine specimen, or the chemical or physical test of a person’s breath pursuant to accepted medical standards when requested by a law enforcement officer, regardless of whether or not the subject resisted administration of the test.

(2) – The results of any test administered pursuant to this section for the purpose of detecting the presence of any controlled substance shall not be admissible as evidence in a criminal prosecution for the possession of a controlled substance.

(3) – Notwithstanding any provision of law pertaining to the confidentiality of hospital records or other medical records, information relating to the alcoholic content of the blood or breath or the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances in the blood obtained pursuant to this section shall be released to a court, prosecuting attorney, defense attorney, or law enforcement officer in connection with an alleged violation of s. 316.193 upon request for such information.

History – s. 3, ch. 82-155; s. 3, ch. 82-403; s. 1, ch. 83-218; s. 4, ch. 83-228; s. 3, ch. 84-359; s. 2, ch. 86-296; s. 3, ch. 88-5; s. 1, ch. 88-82; s. 2, ch. 91-255; s. 20, ch. 92-58; s. 314, ch. 95-148; s. 4, ch. 96-330; s. 1, ch. 98-27; s. 6, ch. 2000-160; s. 1, ch. 2000-226; s. 2, ch. 2002-263; s. 1, ch. 2003-54; s. 33, ch. 2005-164; s. 1, ch. 2006-247.

316.1933: Blood test for impairment or intoxication in cases of death or serious bodily injury; right to use reasonable force. – (1)(a) – If a law enforcement officer has probable cause to believe that a motor vehicle driven by or in the actual physical control of a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, any chemical substances, or any controlled substances has caused the death or serious bodily injury of a human being, a law enforcement officer shall require the person driving or in actual physical control of the motor vehicle to submit to a test of the person’s blood for the purpose of determining the alcoholic content thereof or the presence of chemical substances as set forth in s. 877.111 or any substance controlled under chapter 893. The law enforcement officer may use reasonable force if necessary to require such person to submit to the administration of the blood test. The blood test shall be performed in a reasonable manner. Notwithstanding s. 316.1932, the testing required by this paragraph need not be incidental to a lawful arrest of the person.

(b) – The term “serious bodily injury” means an injury to any person, including the driver, which consists of a physical condition that creates a substantial risk of death, serious personal disfigurement, or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ.

(2)(a) – Only a physician, certified paramedic, registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, other personnel authorized by a hospital to draw blood, or duly licensed clinical laboratory director, supervisor, technologist, or technician, acting at the request of a law enforcement officer, may withdraw blood for the purpose of determining the alcoholic content thereof or the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances therein. However, the failure of a law enforcement officer to request the withdrawal of blood shall not affect the admissibility of a test of blood withdrawn for medical purposes.

1. – Notwithstanding any provision of law pertaining to the confidentiality of hospital records or other medical records, if a health care provider, who is providing medical care in a health care facility to a person injured in a motor vehicle crash, becomes aware, as a result of any blood test performed in the course of that medical treatment, that the person’s blood-alcohol level meets or exceeds the blood-alcohol level specified in s. 316.193(1)(b), the health care provider may notify any law enforcement officer or law enforcement agency. Any such notice must be given within a reasonable time after the health care provider receives the test result. Any such notice shall be used only for the purpose of providing the law enforcement officer with reasonable cause to request the withdrawal of a blood sample pursuant to this section.

2. – The notice shall consist only of the name of the person being treated, the name of the person who drew the blood, the blood-alcohol level indicated by the test, and the date and time of the administration of the test.

3. – Nothing contained in s. 395.3025(4), s. 456.057, or any applicable practice act affects the authority to provide notice under this section, and the health care provider is not considered to have breached any duty owed to the person under s. 395.3025(4), s. 456.057, or any applicable practice act by providing notice or failing to provide notice. It shall not be a breach of any ethical, moral, or legal duty for a health care provider to provide notice or fail to provide notice.

4. – A civil, criminal, or administrative action may not be brought against any person or health care provider participating in good faith in the provision of notice or failure to provide notice as provided in this section. Any person or health care provider participating in the provision of notice or failure to provide notice as provided in this section shall be immune from any civil or criminal liability and from any professional disciplinary action with respect to the provision of notice or failure to provide notice under this section. Any such participant has the same immunity with respect to participating in any judicial proceedings resulting from the notice or failure to provide notice.

(b) – A chemical analysis of the person’s blood to determine the alcoholic content thereof must have been performed substantially in accordance with methods approved by the Department of Law Enforcement and by an individual possessing a valid permit issued by the department for this purpose. The Department of Law Enforcement may approve satisfactory techniques or methods, ascertain the qualifications and competence of individuals to conduct such analyses, and issue permits that are subject to termination or revocation at the discretion of the department. Any insubstantial differences between approved methods or techniques and actual testing procedures, or any insubstantial defects concerning the permit issued by the department, in any individual case, shall not render the test or test results invalid.

(c) – No hospital, clinical laboratory, medical clinic, or similar medical institution or physician, certified paramedic, registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, other personnel authorized by a hospital to draw blood, or duly licensed clinical laboratory director, supervisor, technologist, or technician, or other person assisting a law enforcement officer shall incur any civil or criminal liability as a result of the withdrawal or analysis of a blood specimen pursuant to accepted medical standards when requested by a law enforcement officer, regardless of whether or not the subject resisted administration of the test.

(3)(a) – Any criminal charge resulting from the incident giving rise to the officer’s demand for testing shall be tried concurrently with a charge of any violation arising out of the same incident, unless, in the discretion of the court, such charges should be tried separately. If such charges are tried separately, the fact that such person refused, resisted, obstructed, or opposed testing shall be admissible at the trial of the criminal offense which gave rise to the demand for testing.

(b) – The results of any test administered pursuant to this section for the purpose of detecting the presence of any controlled substance shall not be admissible as evidence in a criminal prosecution for the possession of a controlled substance.

(4) – Notwithstanding any provision of law pertaining to the confidentiality of hospital records or other medical records, information relating to the alcoholic content of the blood or the presence of chemical substances or controlled substances in the blood obtained pursuant to this section shall be released to a court, prosecuting attorney, defense attorney, or law enforcement officer in connection with an alleged violation of s. 316.193 upon request for such information.

History – s. 4, ch. 82-155; s. 19, ch. 83-215; s. 4, ch. 84-359; s. 16, ch. 86-296; s. 4, ch. 88-5; s. 3, ch. 91-255; s. 21, ch. 92-58; s. 3, ch. 93-124; s. 315, ch. 95-148; s. 2, ch. 98-27; s. 7, ch. 2000-160; s. 3, ch. 2002-263.

316.1934: Presumption of impairment; testing methods. – (1) – It is unlawful and punishable as provided in chapter 322 and in s. 316.193 for any person who is under the influence of alcoholic beverages or controlled substances, when affected to the extent that the person’s normal faculties are impaired or to the extent that the person is deprived of full possession of normal faculties, to drive or be in actual physical control of any motor vehicle within this state. Such normal faculties include, but are not limited to, the ability to see, hear, walk, talk, judge distances, drive an automobile, make judgments, act in emergencies, and, in general, normally perform the many mental and physical acts of daily life.

(2) – At the trial of any civil or criminal action or proceeding arising out of acts alleged to have been committed by any person while driving, or in actual physical control of, a vehicle while under the influence of alcoholic beverages or controlled substances, when affected to the extent that the person’s normal faculties were impaired or to the extent that he or she was deprived of full possession of his or her normal faculties, the results of any test administered in accordance with s. 316.1932 or s. 316.1933 and this section are admissible into evidence when otherwise admissible, and the amount of alcohol in the person’s blood or breath at the time alleged, as shown by chemical analysis of the person’s blood, or by chemical or physical test of the person’s breath, gives rise to the following presumptions:

(a) – If there was at that time a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level of 0.05 or less, it is presumed that the person was not under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired.

(b) – If there was at that time a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level in excess of 0.05 but less than 0.08, that fact does not give rise to any presumption that the person was or was not under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired but may be considered with other competent evidence in determining whether the person was under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired.

(c) – If there was at that time a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level of 0.08 or higher, that fact is prima facie evidence that the person was under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired. Moreover, such person who has a blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level of 0.08 or higher is guilty of driving, or being in actual physical control of, a motor vehicle, with an unlawful blood-alcohol level or breath-alcohol level.

The presumptions provided in this subsection do not limit the introduction of any other competent evidence bearing upon the question of whether the person was under the influence of alcoholic beverages to the extent that his or her normal faculties were impaired.

(3) – A chemical analysis of a person’s blood to determine alcoholic content or a chemical or physical test of a person’s breath, in order to be considered valid under this section, must have been performed substantially in accordance with methods approved by the Department of Law Enforcement and by an individual possessing a valid permit issued by the department for this purpose. Any insubstantial differences between approved techniques and actual testing procedures or any insubstantial defects concerning the permit issued by the department, in any individual case do not render the test or test results invalid. The Department of Law Enforcement may approve satisfactory techniques or methods, ascertain the qualifications and competence of individuals to conduct such analyses, and issue permits that are subject to termination or revocation in accordance with rules adopted by the department.

(4) – Any person charged with a violation of s. 316.193, whether in a municipality or not, is entitled to trial by jury according to the Florida Rules of Criminal Procedure.

(5) – An affidavit containing the results of any test of a person’s blood or breath to determine its alcohol content, as authorized by s. 316.1932 or s. 316.1933, is admissible in evidence under the exception to the hearsay rule in s. 90.803(8) for public records and reports. Such affidavit is admissible without further authentication and is presumptive proof of the results of an authorized test to determine alcohol content of the blood or breath if the affidavit discloses:

(a) – The type of test administered and the procedures followed;

(b) – The time of the collection of the blood or breath sample analyzed;

(c) – The numerical results of the test indicating the alcohol content of the blood or breath;

(d) – The type and status of any permit issued by the Department of Law Enforcement which was held by the person who performed the test; and

(e) – If the test was administered by means of a breath testing instrument, the date of performance of the most recent required maintenance on such instrument.

The Department of Law Enforcement shall provide a form for the affidavit. Admissibility of the affidavit does not abrogate the right of the person tested to subpoena the person who administered the test for examination as an adverse witness at a civil or criminal trial or other proceeding.

(6) – Nothing in this section prohibits the prosecution of a person under s. 322.62. The provisions of subsection (2) do not apply to such prosecution and the presumptions made pursuant to that subsection may not be introduced into evidence during such prosecution.

History – ss. 2, 3, ch. 67-308; ss. 19, 35, ch. 69-106; ss. 3, 4, ch. 70-279; s. 1, ch. 70-439; s. 3, ch. 74-384; s. 42, ch. 76-31; s. 1, ch. 76-153; s. 51, ch. 77-147; s. 5, ch. 82-155; s. 2, ch. 83-218; s. 5, ch. 84-359; s. 17, ch. 86-296; s. 5, ch. 88-5; s. 2, ch. 88-82; s. 27, ch. 89-282; s. 4, ch. 91-255; s. 22, ch. 92-58; ss. 2, 4, ch. 93-124; s. 316, ch. 95-148; s. 5, ch. 96-330.

Note. – Former s. 322.262.

316.1935: Fleeing or attempting to elude a law enforcement officer; aggravated fleeing or eluding. – (1) – It is unlawful for the operator of any vehicle, having knowledge that he or she has been ordered to stop such vehicle by a duly authorized law enforcement officer, willfully to refuse or fail to stop the vehicle in compliance with such order or, having stopped in knowing compliance with such order, willfully to flee in an attempt to elude the officer, and a person who violates this subsection commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(2) – Any person who willfully flees or attempts to elude a law enforcement officer in an authorized law enforcement patrol vehicle, with agency insignia and other jurisdictional markings prominently displayed on the vehicle, with siren and lights activated commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) – Any person who willfully flees or attempts to elude a law enforcement officer in an authorized law enforcement patrol vehicle, with agency insignia and other jurisdictional markings prominently displayed on the vehicle, with siren and lights activated, and during the course of the fleeing or attempted eluding:

(a) – Drives at high speed, or in any manner which demonstrates a wanton disregard for the safety of persons or property, commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) – Drives at high speed, or in any manner which demonstrates a wanton disregard for the safety of persons or property, and causes serious bodily injury or death to another person, including any law enforcement officer involved in pursuing or otherwise attempting to effect a stop of the person’s vehicle, commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall sentence any person convicted of committing the offense described in this paragraph to a mandatory minimum sentence of 3 years imprisonment. Nothing in this paragraph shall prevent a court from imposing a greater sentence of incarceration as authorized by law.

(4) – Any person who, in the course of unlawfully leaving or attempting to leave the scene of a crash in violation of s. 316.027 or s. 316.061, having knowledge of an order to stop by a duly authorized law enforcement officer, willfully refuses or fails to stop in compliance with such an order, or having stopped in knowing compliance with such order, willfully flees in an attempt to elude such officer and, as a result of such fleeing or eluding:

(a) – Causes injury to another person or causes damage to any property belonging to another person, commits aggravated fleeing or eluding, a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) – Causes serious bodily injury or death to another person, including any law enforcement officer involved in pursuing or otherwise attempting to effect a stop of the person’s vehicle, commits aggravated fleeing or eluding with serious bodily injury or death, a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

The felony of aggravated fleeing or eluding and the felony of aggravated fleeing or eluding with serious bodily injury or death constitute separate offenses for which a person may be charged, in addition to the offenses under ss. 316.027 and 316.061, relating to unlawfully leaving the scene of a crash, which the person had been in the course of committing or attempting to commit when the order to stop was given. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the court shall sentence any person convicted of committing aggravated fleeing or eluding with serious bodily injury or death to a mandatory minimum sentence of 3 years imprisonment. Nothing in this subsection shall prevent a court from imposing a greater sentence of incarceration as authorized by law.

(5) – The court shall revoke, for a period not less than 1 year nor exceeding 5 years, the driver license of any operator of a motor vehicle convicted of a violation of subsection (1), subsection (2), subsection (3), or subsection (4).

(6) – Notwithstanding s. 948.01, no court may suspend, defer, or withhold adjudication of guilt or imposition of sentence for any violation of this section. A person convicted and sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of incarceration under paragraph (3)(b) or paragraph (4)(b) is not eligible for statutory gain-time under s. 944.275 or any form of discretionary early release, other than pardon or executive clemency or conditional medical release under s. 947.149, prior to serving the mandatory minimum sentence.

(7) – Any motor vehicle involved in a violation of this section is deemed to be contraband, which may be seized by a law enforcement agency and is subject to forfeiture pursuant to ss. 932.701-932.704. Any vehicle not required to be titled under the laws of this state is presumed to be the property of the person in possession of the vehicle.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 4, ch. 85-309; s. 52, ch. 89-282; s. 1, ch. 94-276; s. 896, ch. 95-148; s. 1, ch. 98-274; s. 140, ch. 99-248; s. 1, ch. 2004-388.

Note. – Former s. 316.019.

316.1936: Possession of open containers of alcoholic beverages in vehicles prohibited; penalties. – (1) – As used in this section, the term:

(a) – “Open container” means any container of alcoholic beverage which is immediately capable of being consumed from, or the seal of which has been broken.

(b) – “Road” means a way open to travel by the public, including, but not limited to, a street, highway, or alley. The term includes associated sidewalks, the roadbed, the right-of-way, and all culverts, drains, sluices, ditches, water storage areas, embankments, slopes, retaining walls, bridges, tunnels, and viaducts necessary for the maintenance of travel and all ferries used in connection therewith.

(2)(a) – It is unlawful and punishable as provided in this section for any person to possess an open container of an alcoholic beverage or consume an alcoholic beverage while operating a vehicle in the state or while a passenger in or on a vehicle being operated in the state.

(b) – It is unlawful and punishable as provided in this section for any person to possess an open container of an alcoholic beverage or consume an alcoholic beverage while seated in or on a motor vehicle that is parked or stopped within a road as defined in this section. Notwithstanding the prohibition contained in this section, passengers in vehicles designed, maintained, and used primarily for the transportation of persons for compensation and in motor homes are exempt.

(3) – An open container shall be considered to be in the possession of the operator of a vehicle if the container is not in the possession of a passenger and is not located in a locked glove compartment, locked trunk, or other locked nonpassenger area of the vehicle.

(4) – An open container shall be considered to be in the possession of a passenger of a vehicle if the container is in the physical control of the passenger.

(5) – This section shall not apply to:

(a) – A passenger of a vehicle in which the driver is operating the vehicle pursuant to a contract to provide transportation for passengers and such driver holds a valid commercial driver license with a passenger endorsement issued in accordance with the requirements of chapter 322;

(b) – A passenger of a bus in which the driver holds a valid commercial driver license with a passenger endorsement issued in accordance with the requirements of chapter 322; or

(c) – A passenger of a self-contained motor home which is in excess of 21 feet in length.

(6) – Any operator of a vehicle who violates this section is guilty of a noncriminal moving traffic violation, punishable as provided in chapter 318. A passenger of a vehicle who violates this section is guilty of a nonmoving traffic violation, punishable as provided in chapter 318.

(7) – A county or municipality may adopt an ordinance which imposes more stringent restrictions on the possession of alcoholic beverages in vehicles than those imposed by this section.

(8) – Nothing in this section prohibits the enforcement of s. 316.302.

(9) – A bottle of wine that has been resealed and is transported pursuant to s. 564.09 is not an open container under the provisions of this section.

History – s. 1, ch. 88-22; s. 22, ch. 89-282; s. 5, ch. 2000-313; s. 34, ch. 2005-164; s. 2, ch. 2005-250.

316.1937: Ignition interlock devices, requiring; unlawful acts. – (1) – In addition to any other authorized penalties, the court may require that any person who is convicted of driving under the influence in violation of s. 316.193 shall not operate a motor vehicle unless that vehicle is equipped with a functioning ignition interlock device certified by the department as provided in s. 316.1938, and installed in such a manner that the vehicle will not start if the operator’s blood alcohol level is in excess of 0.025 percent or as otherwise specified by the court. The court may require the use of an approved ignition interlock device for a period of at least 6 continuous months, if the person is permitted to operate a motor vehicle, whether or not the privilege to operate a motor vehicle is restricted, as determined by the court. The court, however, shall order placement of an ignition interlock device in those circumstances required by s. 316.193.

(2) – If the court imposes the use of an ignition interlock device, the court shall:

(a) – Stipulate on the record the requirement for, and the period of, the use of a certified ignition interlock device.

(b) – Order that the records of the department reflect such requirement.

(c) – Order that an ignition interlock device be installed, as the court may determine necessary, on any vehicle owned or operated by the person.

(d) – Determine the person’s ability to pay for installation of the device if the person claims inability to pay. If the court determines that the person is unable to pay for installation of the device, the court may order that any portion of a fine paid by the person for a violation of s. 316.193 shall be allocated to defray the costs of installing the device.

(e) – Require proof of installation of the device and periodic reporting to the department for verification of the operation of the device in the person’s vehicle.

(3) – If the court imposes the use of an ignition interlock device on a person whose driving privilege is not suspended or revoked, the court shall require the person to provide proof of compliance to the department within 30 days. If the person fails to provide proof of installation within that period, absent a finding by the court of good cause for that failure which is entered in the court record, the court shall notify the department.

(4) – If the court imposes the use of an ignition interlock device on a person whose driving privilege is suspended or revoked for a period of less than 3 years, the department shall require proof of compliance before reinstatement of the person’s driving privilege.

(5)(a) – In addition to any other provision of law, upon conviction of a violation of this section the department shall revoke the person’s driving privilege for 1 year from the date of conviction. Upon conviction of a separate violation of this section during the same period of required use of an ignition interlock device, the department shall revoke the person’s driving privilege for 5 years from the date of conviction.

(b) – Any person convicted of a violation of subsection (6) who does not have a driver license shall, in addition to any other penalty provided by law, pay a fine of not less than $250 or more than $500 per each such violation. In the event that the person is unable to pay any such fine, the fine shall become a lien against the motor vehicle used in violation of subsection (6) and payment shall be made pursuant to s. 316.3025(5).

(6)(a) – It is unlawful to tamper with, or to circumvent the operation of, a court-ordered ignition interlock device.

(b) – It is unlawful for any person whose driving privilege is restricted pursuant to this section to request or solicit any other person to blow into an ignition interlock device or to start a motor vehicle equipped with the device for the purpose of providing the person so restricted with an operable motor vehicle.

(c) – It is unlawful to blow into an ignition interlock device or to start a motor vehicle equipped with the device for the purpose of providing an operable motor vehicle to a person whose driving privilege is restricted pursuant to this section.

(d) – It is unlawful to knowingly lease or lend a motor vehicle to a person who has had his or her driving privilege restricted as provided in this section, unless the vehicle is equipped with a functioning, certified ignition interlock device. Any person whose driving privilege is restricted under a condition of probation requiring an ignition interlock device shall notify any other person who leases or loans a motor vehicle to him or her of such driving restriction.

(7) – Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, if a person is required to operate a motor vehicle in the course and scope of his or her employment and if the vehicle is owned or leased by the employer, the person may operate that vehicle without installation of an approved ignition interlock device if the employer has been notified of such driving privilege restriction. Proof of that notification must be with the vehicle. This employment exemption does not apply, however, if the business entity which owns the vehicle is owned or controlled by the person whose driving privilege has been restricted.

(8) – In addition to the penalties provided in this section, a violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 90-253; ss. 16, 19, ch. 91-255; s. 18, ch. 94-306; s. 141, ch. 99-248; s. 4, ch. 2002-263; s. 25, ch. 2004-5; s. 6, ch. 2008-176; s. 12, ch. 2013-160; s. 9, ch. 2014-216.

316.1938: Ignition interlock devices, certification; warning label. – (1) – The department shall certify or cause to be certified the accuracy and precision of the testing component of the ignition interlock devices as required by s. 316.1937, and shall publish a list of approved devices, together with rules governing the accuracy and precision of the testing component of such devices as adopted by rule in compliance with s. 316.1937. The cost of certification shall be borne by the manufacturers of ignition interlock devices.

(2) – No model of ignition interlock device shall be certified unless it meets or exceeds current National Highway Traffic Safety Administration standards.

(3) – Providers of ignition interlock devices and services whose devices have been certified must contract with the department to become a service provider in the state. The department shall contract with any provider whose devices have been certified and who has made a request to be a provider in the state.

(4) – The contract between the department and an ignition interlock device service provider must include the following:

(a) – Provisions for the effective and efficient installation and removal of the ignition interlock device.

(b) – Requirements for the provision of services, inspection, and monitoring of the ignition interlock device.

(c) – A requirement for the provider to electronically transmit reports to the department regarding driver activity, bypass approval, compliance, client violations, and other reports in a format determined by the department.

(d) – Requirements for a detailed implementation plan that outlines the steps and the timeframe necessary for the ignition interlock device provider to be fully operational.

(e) – Provisions for the collection and remittance of all state revenues.

(f) – Provisions for corrective action to be taken if the ignition interlock device provider is out of compliance, including penalty provisions and liquidated damages.

(g) – Requirements for security protection for ignition interlock devices, including, but not limited to, each device being capable of recording each event and providing visual evidence of any actual or attempted tampering, alteration, bypass, or circumvention.

(h) – A provision to ensure processing and continuous monitoring are achieved for all ignition interlock device clients who require transition of services.

(i) – Provisions for training for service center technicians, clients, toll-free help line staff, the department, and DUI programs.

(j) – A requirement for the ignition interlock device provider to maintain a readily accessible service center in each judicial circuit. The service center must be adequately staffed and equipped to provide all ignition interlock device support services.

(k) – Requirements for a transition plan for the ignition interlock device provider before the provider leaves the state to ensure that continuous monitoring is achieved.

(l) – A requirement for the ignition interlock device provider to have and maintain a surety bond or irrevocable letter of credit in the amount of $200,000 executed by the applicant.

(m) – A requirement that, before beginning work, the ignition interlock device provider have and maintain insurance as approved by the department, including workers’ compensation insurance, vendor’s public liability and property damage insurance, and subcontractors’ public liability and property damage insurance.

(n) – Requirements for the ignition interlock device provider to maintain client information and financial records, including requirements for electronic storage media formats. Such records must be maintained in accordance with generally accepted accounting procedures and practices that sufficiently and properly reflect all revenues and expenditures of funds. Such records are subject to inspection, review, or audit by state personnel authorized by the department. Upon termination or expiration of the contract, all such client records shall be submitted to the department at no cost to the department.

(o) – A requirement for a warning label to be affixed to each ignition interlock device upon installation. The label must contain a warning that any person who tampers with, circumvents, or otherwise misuses the device commits a violation of law and may be subject to civil liability.

(p) – A provision requiring the provider to replace defective ignition interlock devices at no cost to the client.

(5) – An ignition interlock device provider must maintain the confidentiality of all personal information received under its duties as an ignition interlock device provider in accordance with chapter 119 and the federal Driver’s Privacy Protection Act of 1994, 18 U.S.C. ss. 2721 et seq.

(6) – Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the contract shall be governed by chapter 287, except for the requirements of s. 287.057.

History – s. 2, ch. 90-253; s. 26, ch. 92-58; s. 10, ch. 2014-216.

316.1939: Refusal to submit to testing; penalties. – (1) – Any person who has refused to submit to a chemical or physical test of his or her breath, blood, or urine, as described in s. 316.1932, and whose driving privilege was previously suspended for a prior refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her breath, urine, or blood, and:

(a) – Who the arresting law enforcement officer had probable cause to believe was driving or in actual physical control of a motor vehicle in this state while under the influence of alcoholic beverages, chemical substances, or controlled substances;

(b) – Who was placed under lawful arrest for a violation of s. 316.193 unless such test was requested pursuant to s. 316.1932(1)(c);

(c) – Who was informed that, if he or she refused to submit to such test, his or her privilege to operate a motor vehicle would be suspended for a period of 1 year or, in the case of a second or subsequent refusal, for a period of 18 months;

(d) – Who was informed that a refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her breath, urine, or blood, if his or her driving privilege has been previously suspended for a prior refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her breath, urine, or blood, is a misdemeanor; and

(e) – Who, after having been so informed, refused to submit to any such test when requested to do so by a law enforcement officer or correctional officer

commits a misdemeanor of the first degree and is subject to punishment as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(2) – The disposition of any administrative proceeding that relates to the suspension of a person’s driving privilege does not affect a criminal action under this section.

(3) – The disposition of a criminal action under this section does not affect any administrative proceeding that relates to the suspension of a person’s driving privilege. The department’s records showing that a person’s license has been previously suspended for a prior refusal to submit to a lawful test of his or her breath, urine, or blood shall be admissible and shall create a rebuttable presumption of such suspension.

History – s. 5, ch. 2002-263.

316.194: Stopping, standing or parking outside of municipalities. – (1) – Upon any highway outside of a municipality, no person shall stop, park, or leave standing any vehicle, whether attended or unattended, upon the paved or main-traveled part of the highway when it is practicable to stop, park, or so leave the vehicle off such part of the highway; but in every event an unobstructed width of the highway opposite a standing vehicle shall be left for the free passage of other vehicles, and a clear view of the stopped vehicle shall be available from a distance of 200 feet in each direction upon the highway.

(2) – This section shall not apply to the driver or owner of any vehicle which is disabled while on the paved or main-traveled portion of a highway in such manner and to such extent that it is impossible to avoid stopping and temporarily leaving the disabled vehicle in such position, or to passenger-carrying buses temporarily parked while loading or discharging passengers, where highway conditions render such parking off the paved portion of the highway hazardous or impractical.

(3)(a) – Whenever any police officer or traffic accident investigation officer finds a vehicle standing upon a highway in violation of any of the foregoing provisions of this section, the officer is authorized to move the vehicle, or require the driver or other persons in charge of the vehicle to move the vehicle, to a position off the paved or main-traveled part of the highway.

(b) – Officers and traffic accident investigation officers may provide for the removal of any abandoned vehicle to the nearest garage or other place of safety, cost of such removal to be a lien against motor vehicle, when an abandoned vehicle is found unattended upon a bridge or causeway or in any tunnel, or on any public highway in the following instances:

1. – Where such vehicle constitutes an obstruction of traffic;

2. – Where such vehicle has been parked or stored on the public right-of-way for a period exceeding 48 hours, in other than designated parking areas, and is within 30 feet of the pavement edge; and

3. – Where an operative vehicle has been parked or stored on the public right-of-way for a period exceeding 10 days, in other than designated parking areas, and is more than 30 feet from the pavement edge. However, the agency removing such vehicle shall be required to report same to the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles within 24 hours of such removal.

(c) – Any vehicle moved under the provisions of this chapter which is a stolen vehicle shall not be subject to the provisions hereof unless the moving authority has reported to the Florida Highway Patrol the taking into possession of the vehicle within 24 hours of the moving of the vehicle.

(4) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a moving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 71-352; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 142, ch. 99-248; s. 35, ch. 2005-164.

Note. – Former s. 316.124.

316.1945: Stopping, standing, or parking prohibited in specified places. – (1) – Except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic, or in compliance with law or the directions of a police officer or official traffic control device, no person shall:

(a) – Stop, stand, or park a vehicle:

1. – On the roadway side of any vehicle stopped or parked at the edge or curb of a street.

2. – On a sidewalk.

3. – Within an intersection.

4. – On a crosswalk.

5. – Between a safety zone and the adjacent curb or within 30 feet of points on the curb immediately opposite the ends of a safety zone, unless the Department of Transportation indicates a different length by signs or markings.

6. – Alongside or opposite any street excavation or obstruction when stopping, standing, or parking would obstruct traffic.

7. – Upon any bridge or other elevated structure upon a highway or within a highway tunnel.

8. – On any railroad tracks.

9. – On a bicycle path.

10. – At any place where official traffic control devices prohibit stopping.

11. – On the roadway or shoulder of a limited access facility, except as provided by regulation of the Department of Transportation, or on the paved portion of a connecting ramp; except that a vehicle which is disabled or in a condition improper to be driven as a result of mechanical failure or crash may be parked on such shoulder for a period not to exceed 6 hours. This provision is not applicable to a person stopping a vehicle to render aid to an injured person or assistance to a disabled vehicle in obedience to the directions of a law enforcement officer or to a person stopping a vehicle in compliance with applicable traffic laws.

12. – For the purpose of loading or unloading a passenger on the paved roadway or shoulder of a limited access facility or on the paved portion of any connecting ramp. This provision is not applicable to a person stopping a vehicle to render aid to an injured person or assistance to a disabled vehicle.

(b) – Stand or park a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except momentarily to pick up or discharge a passenger or passengers:

1. – In front of a public or private driveway.

2. – Within 15 feet of a fire hydrant.

3. – Within 20 feet of a crosswalk at an intersection.

4. – Within 30 feet upon the approach to any flashing signal, stop sign, or traffic control signal located at the side of a roadway.

5. – Within 20 feet of the driveway entrance to any fire station and on the side of a street opposite the entrance to any fire station within 75 feet of such entrance (when property signposted).

6. – On an exclusive bicycle lane.

7. – At any place where official traffic control devices prohibit standing.

(c) – Park a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except temporarily for the purpose of, and while actually engaged in, loading or unloading merchandise or passengers:

1. – Within 50 feet of the nearest rail of a railroad crossing unless the Department of Transportation establishes a different distance due to unusual circumstances.

2. – At any place where official signs prohibit parking.

(2) – No person shall move a vehicle not lawfully under his or her control into any such prohibited area or away from a curb such a distance as is unlawful.

(3) – A law enforcement officer or parking enforcement specialist who discovers a vehicle parked in violation of this section or a municipal or county ordinance may:

(a) – Issue a ticket form as may be used by a political subdivision or municipality to the driver; or

(b) – If the vehicle is unattended, attach such ticket to the vehicle in a conspicuous place, except that the uniform traffic citation prepared by the department pursuant to s. 316.650 may not be issued by being attached to an unattended vehicle.

The uniform traffic citation prepared by the department pursuant to s. 316.650 may not be issued for violation of a municipal or county parking ordinance.

(4) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 2, ch. 78-52; s. 1, ch. 79-403; s. 2, ch. 80-316; s. 5, ch. 83-68; s. 5, ch. 84-309; s. 1, ch. 85-81; s. 2, ch. 88-91; s. 317, ch. 95-148; s. 143, ch. 99-248.

Note. – Former s. 316.160.

316.195: Additional parking regulations. – (1) – Except as otherwise provided in this section, every vehicle stopped or parked upon a two-way roadway shall be so stopped or parked with the right-hand wheels parallel to and within 12 inches of the right-hand curb or edge of the roadway.

(2) – Except when otherwise provided by local ordinance, every vehicle stopped or parked upon a one-way roadway shall be so stopped or parked parallel to the curb or edge of the roadway, in the direction of authorized traffic movement, with its right-hand wheels within 12 inches of the right-hand curb or edge of the roadway, or its left wheels within 12 inches of the left-hand curb or edge of the roadway.

(3) – Local authorities may, by ordinance, permit angle parking on any roadway, except that angle parking shall not be permitted on any state road unless the Department of Transportation has determined by resolution or order entered in its minutes that the roadway is of sufficient width to permit angle parking without interfering with the free movement of traffic.

(4) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 144, ch. 99-248.

Note. – Former s. 316.161.

316.1951: Parking for certain purposes prohibited; sale of motor vehicles; prohibited acts. – (1) – It is unlawful for any person to park a motor vehicle, as defined in s. 320.01, upon a public street or highway, a public parking lot, or other public property, or upon private property where the public has the right to travel by motor vehicle, for the principal purpose and intent of displaying the motor vehicle thereon for sale, hire, or rental unless the sale, hire, or rental of the motor vehicle is specifically authorized on such property by municipal or county regulation and the person is in compliance with all municipal or county licensing regulations.

(2) – The provisions of subsection (1) do not prohibit a person from parking his or her own motor vehicle or his or her other personal property on any private real property which the person owns or leases or on private real property which the person does not own or lease, but for which he or she obtains the permission of the owner, or on the public street immediately adjacent thereto, for the principal purpose and intent of sale, hire, or rental.

(3) – Subsection (1) does not prohibit a licensed motor vehicle dealer from displaying for sale or offering for sale motor vehicles at locations other than the dealer’s licensed location if the dealer has been issued a supplemental license for off-premises sales, as provided in s. 320.27(5), and has complied with the requirements in subsection (1). A vehicle displayed for sale by a licensed dealer at any location other than the dealer’s licensed location is subject to immediate removal without warning.

(4) – A local government may adopt an ordinance to allow the towing of a motor vehicle parked in violation of this section. A law enforcement officer, compliance officer, code enforcement officer from any local government agency, or supervisor of the department may issue a citation and cause to be immediately removed at the owner’s expense any motor vehicle found in violation of subsection (1), except as provided in subsections (2) and (3), or in violation of subsection (5), subsection (6), subsection (7), or subsection (8), and the owner shall be assessed a penalty as provided in s. 318.18(21) by the government agency or authority that orders immediate removal of the motor vehicle. A motor vehicle removed under this section shall not be released from an impound or towing and storage facility before a release form prescribed by the department has been completed verifying that the fine has been paid to the government agency or authority that ordered immediate removal of the motor vehicle. However, the owner may pay towing and storage charges to the towing and storage facility pursuant to s. 713.78 before payment of the fine or before the release form has been completed.

(5) – It is unlawful to offer a vehicle for sale if the vehicle identification number has been destroyed, removed, covered, altered, or defaced, as described in s. 319.33(1)(d). A vehicle found in violation of this subsection is subject to immediate removal without warning.

(6) – It is unlawful to knowingly attach to any motor vehicle a registration that was not assigned or lawfully transferred to the vehicle pursuant to s. 320.261. A vehicle found in violation of this subsection is subject to immediate removal without warning.

(7) – It is unlawful to display or offer for sale a vehicle that does not have a valid registration as provided in s. 320.02. A vehicle found in violation of this subsection is subject to immediate removal without warning. This subsection does not apply to vehicles and recreational vehicles being offered for sale through motor vehicle auctions as defined in s. 320.27(1)(c)4.

(8) – A vehicle is subject to immediate removal without warning if it bears a telephone number that has been displayed on three or more vehicles offered for sale within a 12-month period.

(9) – Any other provision of law to the contrary notwithstanding, a violation of subsection (1), subsection (5), subsection (6), subsection (7), or subsection (8) shall subject the owner of such motor vehicle to towing fees reasonably necessitated by removal and storage of the motor vehicle and a fine as required by s. 318.18.

(10) – This section does not prohibit the governing body of a municipality or county, with respect to streets, highways, or other property under its jurisdiction, from regulating the parking of motor vehicles for any purpose.

(11) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318, unless otherwise mandated by general law.

History – s. 1, ch. 88-93; s. 19, ch. 94-306; s. 897, ch. 95-148; s. 64, ch. 95-333; s. 145, ch. 99-248; ss. 44, 45, ch. 2000-171; s. 1, ch. 2001-196; s. 63, ch. 2007-196; s. 3, ch. 2010-198.

316.1955: Enforcement of parking requirements for persons who have disabilities. – (1) – It is unlawful for any person to stop, stand, or park a vehicle within, or to obstruct, any such specially designated and marked parking space provided in accordance with s. 553.5041, unless the vehicle displays a disabled parking permit issued under s. 316.1958 or s. 320.0848 or a license plate issued under s. 320.084, s. 320.0842, s. 320.0843, or s. 320.0845, and the vehicle is transporting the person to whom the displayed permit is issued. The violation may not be dismissed for failure of the marking on the parking space to comply with s. 553.5041 if the space is in general compliance and is clearly distinguishable as a designated accessible parking space for people who have disabilities. Only a warning may be issued for unlawfully parking in a space designated for persons with disabilities if there is no above-grade sign as provided in s. 553.5041.

(a) – Whenever a law enforcement officer, a parking enforcement specialist, or the owner or lessee of the space finds a vehicle in violation of this subsection, that officer, owner, or lessor shall have the vehicle in violation removed to any lawful parking space or facility or require the operator or other person in charge of the vehicle immediately to remove the unauthorized vehicle from the parking space. Whenever any vehicle is removed under this section to a storage lot, garage, or other safe parking space, the cost of the removal and parking constitutes a lien against the vehicle.

(b) – The officer or specialist shall charge the operator or other person in charge of the vehicle in violation with a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as provided in s. 316.008(4) or s. 318.18(6). The owner of a leased vehicle is not responsible for a violation of this section if the vehicle is registered in the name of the lessee.

(c) – All convictions for violations of this section must be reported to the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles by the clerk of the court.

(d) – A law enforcement officer or a parking enforcement specialist has the right to demand to be shown the person’s disabled parking permit and driver license or state identification card when investigating the possibility of a violation of this section. If such a request is refused, the person in charge of the vehicle may be charged with resisting an officer without violence, as provided in s. 843.02.

(2) – It is unlawful for any person to obstruct the path of travel to an accessible parking space, curb cut, or access aisle by standing or parking a vehicle within any such designated area. The violator is subject to the same penalties as are imposed for illegally parking in a space that is designated as an accessible parking space for persons who have disabilities.

(3) – Any person who is chauffeuring a person who has a disability is allowed, without need for a disabled parking permit or a special license plate, to stand temporarily in any such parking space, for the purpose of loading or unloading the person who has a disability. A penalty may not be imposed upon the driver for such temporary standing.

(4)(a) – A vehicle that is transporting a person who has a disability and that has been granted a permit under s. 320.0848(1)(a) may be parked for a maximum of 30 minutes in any parking space reserved for persons who have disabilities.

(b) – Notwithstanding paragraph (a), a theme park or an entertainment complex as defined in s. 509.013(9) which provides parking in designated areas for persons who have disabilities may allow any vehicle that is transporting a person who has a disability to remain parked in a space reserved for persons who have disabilities throughout the period the theme park is open to the public for that day.

History – s. 1, ch. 75-105; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 2, ch. 77-83; s. 1, ch. 77-444; ss. 1, 8, ch. 79-82; s. 123, ch. 79-400; s. 1, ch. 80-196; s. 2, ch. 84-234; s. 2, ch. 85-227; s. 1, ch. 87-225; s. 22, ch. 90-330; s. 80, ch. 91-221; s. 3, ch. 93-183; s. 2, ch. 96-200; s. 25, ch. 96-350; s. 8, ch. 97-76; s. 1, ch. 98-202; s. 89, ch. 99-13; s. 146, ch. 99-248; s. 16, ch. 2000-141; s. 10, ch. 2006-290.

Note. – Former s. 316.165.

316.1957: Parking violations; designated parking spaces for persons who have disabilities. – When evidence is presented in any court of the fact that any motor vehicle was parked in a properly designated parking space for persons who have disabilities in violation of s. 316.1955, it is prima facie evidence that the vehicle was parked and left in the space by the person, firm, or corporation in whose name the vehicle is registered and licensed according to the records of the department.

History – s. 4, ch. 85-227; s. 26, ch. 90-330; s. 3, ch. 96-200; s. 8, ch. 2011-66.

316.1958: Out-of-state vehicles bearing identification of issuance to persons who have disabilities. – Motor vehicles displaying a special license plate or parking permit issued to a person who has a disability by any other state or district subject to the laws of the United States or by a foreign country that issues disabled parking permits that display the international symbol of accessibility are recognized as displaying a valid license plate or permit, that allows such a vehicle special parking privileges under s. 316.1955, if the other state or district grants reciprocal recognition for residents of this state who have disabilities. However, when an individual is required by law to have a Florida driver license or a Florida vehicle registration, a special motor vehicle license plate or parking permit issued by another state, district, or country to persons who have disabilities is not valid and the individual whose vehicle displays such an invalid plate or permit is subject to the same penalty as an individual whose vehicle does not display a valid plate or permit. A law enforcement officer or parking enforcement specialist may not ticket a vehicle for a violation of s. 316.1955 without first determining whether the vehicle is transporting a resident of another state who is the owner of the out-of-state placard.

History – s. 5, ch. 85-227; s. 26, ch. 90-330; s. 4, ch. 96-200; s. 2, ch. 98-202; s. 2, ch. 99-248.

316.1959: Handicapped parking enforcement. – The provisions of handicapped parking shall be enforced by state, county, and municipal authorities in their respective jurisdictions whether on public or private property in the same manner as is used to enforce other parking laws and ordinances by said agencies.

History – s. 6, ch. 85-227.

316.1964: Exemption of vehicles transporting certain persons who have disabilities from payment of parking fees and penalties. – (1) – A state agency, county, municipality, or any agency thereof, may not exact any fee for parking on the public streets or highways or in any metered parking space from the driver of a vehicle that displays a disabled parking permit or a license plate issued under s. 316.1958 or s. 320.0848 or a license plate issued under s. 320.084, s. 320.0842, s. 320.0843, or s. 320.0845 if the vehicle is transporting the person who has a disability and to whom the disabled parking permit or license plate was issued.

(2) – The driver of a vehicle that is parked as provided in subsection (1) may not be penalized for parking, except in clearly defined bus loading zones, fire zones, or access aisles adjacent to the parking spaces for persons who have disabilities, or in areas posted as “No Parking” zones or as emergency vehicle zones, or for parking in excess of the posted time limits.

(3) – Notwithstanding subsection (1), when a state, county, or municipal parking facility or lot is being used in connection with an event at a convention center, cruise-port terminal, sports stadium, sports arena, coliseum, or auditorium, the parking facility may charge a person whose vehicle displays such a parking permit a parking fee in the same manner and amount as it charges other persons.

(4) – A parking facility that restricts the number of consecutive days that a vehicle may be parked may impose that same restriction on a vehicle that displays a disabled parking permit issued to a person who has a disability.

(5) – Notwithstanding subsection (1), when an on-street parking meter restricts the duration of time that a vehicle may be parked, a vehicle properly displaying a disabled parking permit is allowed a maximum of 4 hours at no charge; however, local governments may extend such time by local ordinance.

(6) – A parking facility that leases a parking space for a duration that exceeds 1 week is not required to reduce the fee for a lessee who is disabled.

(7) – An airport that owns, operates, or leases parking facilities, or any other parking facilities that are used for the purpose of air travel, may charge for parking vehicles that display a disabled parking permit or license tag issued under s. 316.1958, s. 320.084, s. 320.0842, s. 320.0843, s. 320.0845, or s. 320.0848. However, the governing body of each publicly owned or publicly operated airport must grant free parking to any vehicle with specialized equipment, such as ramps, lifts, or foot or hand controls, or for utilization by a person who has a disability or whose vehicle is displaying the Florida Toll Exemption permit.

(8) – Notwithstanding subsection (1), a county, municipality, or any agency thereof may charge for parking in a facility or lot that provides timed parking spaces any vehicle that displays a disabled parking permit, except that any vehicle with specialized equipment, such as ramps, lifts, or foot or hand controls, for use by a person who has a disability, or any vehicle that is displaying the “DV” license plate issued under s. 320.084 or the Florida Toll Exemption permit, is exempt from any parking fees.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 1, ch. 77-83; s. 3, ch. 79-82; s. 23, ch. 90-330; s. 5, ch. 96-200; s. 3, ch. 98-202; s. 1, ch. 2015-114.

Note. – Former s. 316.163.

316.1965: Parking near rural mailbox during certain hours; penalties. – Whoever parks any vehicle within 30 feet of any rural mailbox upon any state highway in this state between 8 a.m. and 6 p.m. shall be cited for a nonmoving violation, punishable as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 6, ch. 74-377; ss. 1, 17, ch. 76-31; s. 27, ch. 96-350.

Note. – Former s. 316.164.

316.1967: Liability for payment of parking ticket violations and other parking violations. – (1) – The owner of a vehicle is responsible and liable for payment of any parking ticket violation unless the owner can furnish evidence, when required by this subsection, that the vehicle was, at the time of the parking violation, in the care, custody, or control of another person. In such instances, the owner of the vehicle is required, within a reasonable time after notification of the parking violation, to furnish to the appropriate law enforcement authorities an affidavit setting forth the name, address, and driver license number of the person who leased, rented, or otherwise had the care, custody, or control of the vehicle. The affidavit submitted under this subsection is admissible in a proceeding charging a parking ticket violation and raises the rebuttable presumption that the person identified in the affidavit is responsible for payment of the parking ticket violation. The owner of a vehicle is not responsible for a parking ticket violation if the vehicle involved was, at the time, stolen or in the care, custody, or control of some person who did not have permission of the owner to use the vehicle. The owner of a leased vehicle is not responsible for a parking ticket violation and is not required to submit an affidavit or the other evidence specified in this section, if the vehicle is registered in the name of the person who leased the vehicle.

(2) – Any person who is issued a county or municipal parking ticket by a parking enforcement specialist or officer is deemed to be charged with a noncriminal violation and shall comply with the directions on the ticket. If payment is not received or a response to the ticket is not made within the time period specified thereon, the county court or its traffic violations bureau shall notify the registered owner of the vehicle that was cited, or the registered lessee when the cited vehicle is registered in the name of the person who leased the vehicle, by mail to the address given on the motor vehicle registration, of the ticket. Mailing the notice to this address constitutes notification. Upon notification, the registered owner or registered lessee shall comply with the court’s directive.

(3) – Any person who fails to satisfy the court’s directive waives his or her right to pay the applicable civil penalty.

(4) – Any person who elects to appear before a designated official to present evidence waives his or her right to pay the civil penalty provisions of the ticket. The official, after a hearing, shall make a determination as to whether a parking violation has been committed and may impose a civil penalty not to exceed $100 or the fine amount designated by county ordinance, plus court costs. Any person who fails to pay the civil penalty within the time allowed by the court is deemed to have been convicted of a parking ticket violation, and the court shall take appropriate measures to enforce collection of the fine.

(5) – Any provision of subsections (2), (3), and (4) to the contrary notwithstanding, chapter 318 does not apply to violations of county parking ordinances and municipal parking ordinances.

(6) – Any county or municipality may provide by ordinance that the clerk of the court or the traffic violations bureau shall supply the department with a magnetically encoded computer tape reel or cartridge or send by other electronic means data which is machine readable by the installed computer system at the department, listing persons who have three or more outstanding parking violations, including violations of s. 316.1955. Each county shall provide by ordinance that the clerk of the court or the traffic violations bureau shall supply the department with a magnetically encoded computer tape reel or cartridge or send by other electronic means data that is machine readable by the installed computer system at the department, listing persons who have any outstanding violations of s. 316.1955 or any similar local ordinance that regulates parking in spaces designated for use by persons who have disabilities. The department shall mark the appropriate registration records of persons who are so reported. Section 320.03(8) applies to each person whose name appears on the list.

History – s. 1, ch. 77-456; s. 2, ch. 79-403; s. 3, ch. 80-316; s. 2, ch. 85-325; s. 1, ch. 88-246; s. 1, ch. 89-196; s. 1, ch. 90-48; s. 20, ch. 90-330; s. 1, ch. 91-180; s. 20, ch. 94-306; s. 898, ch. 95-148; s. 6, ch. 96-200; s. 2, ch. 2001-196; s. 36, ch. 2005-164.

316.1974: Funeral procession right-of-way and liability. – (1) – DEFINITIONS. –

(a) – “Funeral director” and “funeral establishment” shall have the same meaning as set forth in s. 497.005.

(b) – “Funeral procession” means two or more vehicles accompanying the body of a deceased person, or traveling to the church, chapel, or other location at which the funeral service is to be held, in the daylight hours, including a funeral lead vehicle or a funeral escort vehicle.

(c) – “Funeral lead vehicle” means any authorized law enforcement or non-law enforcement motor vehicle properly equipped pursuant to subsection (2) or a funeral escort vehicle being used to lead and facilitate the movement of a funeral procession. A funeral hearse may serve as a funeral lead vehicle.

(d) – “Funeral escort” means a person or entity that provides escort services for funeral processions, including law enforcement personnel and agencies.

(e) – “Funeral escort vehicle” means any motor vehicle that is properly equipped pursuant to subsection (2) and which escorts a funeral procession.

(2) – EQUIPMENT. –

(a) – All non-law enforcement funeral escort vehicles and funeral lead vehicles shall be equipped with at least one lighted circulation lamp exhibiting an amber or purple light or lens visible under normal atmospheric conditions for a distance of 500 feet from the front of the vehicle. Flashing amber or purple lights may be used only when such vehicles are used in a funeral procession.

(b) – Any law enforcement funeral escort vehicle may be equipped with red, blue, or amber flashing lights which meet the criteria established in paragraph (a).

(3) – FUNERAL PROCESSION RIGHT-OF-WAY; FUNERAL ESCORT VEHICLES; FUNERAL LEAD VEHICLES. –

(a) – Regardless of any traffic control device or right-of-way provisions prescribed by state or local ordinance, pedestrians and operators of all vehicles, except as stated in paragraph (c), shall yield the right-of-way to any vehicle which is part of a funeral procession being led by a funeral escort vehicle or a funeral lead vehicle.

(b) – When the funeral lead vehicle lawfully enters an intersection, either by reason of a traffic control device or at the direction of law enforcement personnel, the remaining vehicles in the funeral procession may follow through the intersection regardless of any traffic control devices or right-of-way provisions prescribed by state or local law.

(c) – Funeral processions shall have the right-of-way at intersections regardless of traffic control devices, subject to the following conditions and exceptions:

1. – Operators of vehicles in a funeral procession shall yield the right-of-way to an approaching emergency vehicle giving an audible or visible signal.

2. – Operators of vehicles in a funeral procession shall yield the right-of-way when directed to do so by a police officer.

3. – Operators of vehicles in a funeral procession must exercise due care when participating in a funeral procession.

(4) – DRIVING IN PROCESSION. –

(a) – All vehicles comprising a funeral procession shall follow the preceding vehicle in the funeral procession as closely as is practical and safe.

(b) – Any ordinance, law, or regulation stating that motor vehicles shall be operated to allow sufficient space enabling any other vehicle to enter and occupy such space without danger shall not be applicable to vehicles in a funeral procession.

(c) – Each vehicle which is part of a funeral procession shall have its headlights, either high or low beam, and tail lights lighted and may also use the flashing hazard lights if the vehicle is so equipped.

(5) – LIABILITY. –

(a) – Liability for any death, personal injury, or property damage suffered on or after October 1, 1997, by any person in a funeral procession shall not be imposed upon the funeral director or funeral establishment or their employees or agents unless such death, personal injury, or property damage is proximately caused by the negligent or intentional act of an employee or agent of the funeral director or funeral establishment.

(b) – A funeral director, funeral establishment, funeral escort, or other participant that leads, organizes, or participates in a funeral procession in accordance with this section shall be presumed to have acted with reasonable care.

(c) – Except for a grossly negligent or intentional act by a funeral director or funeral establishment, there shall be no liability on the part of a funeral director or funeral establishment for failing, on or after October 1, 1997, to use reasonable care in the planning or selection of the route to be followed by the funeral procession.

(6) – VIOLATIONS. – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable pursuant to chapter 318 as a nonmoving violation for infractions of subsection (2), a pedestrian violation for infractions of subsection (3), or as a moving violation for infractions of subsection (3) or subsection (4) if the infraction resulted from the operation of a vehicle.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 14, ch. 97-300; s. 147, ch. 99-248; s. 136, ch. 2004-301; s. 1, ch. 2005-155.

Note. – Former s. 316.162.

316.1975: Unattended motor vehicle. – (1) – A person driving or in charge of any motor vehicle may not permit it to stand unattended without first stopping the engine, locking the ignition, and removing the key. A vehicle may not be permitted to stand unattended upon any perceptible grade without stopping the engine and effectively setting the brake thereon and turning the front wheels to the curb or side of the street. A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

(2) – This section does not apply to the operator of:

(a) – An authorized emergency vehicle while in the performance of official duties and the vehicle is equipped with an activated antitheft device that prohibits the vehicle from being driven;

(b) – A licensed delivery truck or other delivery vehicle while making deliveries;

(c) – A solid waste or recovered materials collection vehicle while collecting such items; or

(d) – A vehicle that is started by remote control while the ignition, transmission, and doors are locked.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; ss. 3, 148, ch. 99-248; s. 103, ch. 2002-20; s. 2, ch. 2002-23; s. 11, ch. 2014-216.

Note. – Former s. 316.097.

316.1985: Limitations on backing. – (1) – The driver of a vehicle shall not back the same unless such movement can be made with safety and without interfering with other traffic.

(2) – The driver of a vehicle shall not back the same upon any shoulder or roadway of any limited access facility.

(3) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a moving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 149, ch. 99-248.

Note. – Former s. 316.098.

316.1995: Driving upon sidewalk or bicycle path. – (1) – Except as provided in s. 316.008 or s. 316.212(8), a person may not drive any vehicle other than by human power upon a bicycle path, sidewalk, or sidewalk area, except upon a permanent or duly authorized temporary driveway.

(2) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a moving violation as provided in chapter 318.

(3) – This section does not apply to motorized wheelchairs.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 6, ch. 83-68; s. 3, ch. 84-284; s. 150, ch. 99-248; s. 45, ch. 2010-223.

Note. – Former s. 316.110.