Florida Traffic Laws (Section 6)

316.231: Lamps on other vehicles and equipment. – Every vehicle, including animal-drawn vehicles and vehicles referred to in s. 316.215(3), not specifically required by the provisions of this section to be equipped with lamps or other lighting devices shall at all times specified in s. 316.217 be equipped with at least one lamp displaying a white light visible from a distance of not less than 1,000 feet to the front of said vehicle, and shall also be equipped with two lamps displaying red light visible from a distance of not less than 1,000 feet to the rear of the vehicle, or, as an alternative, one lamp displaying a red light visible from a distance of not less than 1,000 feet to the rear and two red reflectors visible from all distances of 600 to 100 feet to the rear when illuminated by the lawful lower beams of headlamps. A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 26, ch. 76-31; s. 182, ch. 99-248.

316.233: Spot lamps and auxiliary lamps. – (1) – SPOT LAMPS. – Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not to exceed two spot lamps and every lighted spot lamp shall be so aimed and used that no part of the high intensity portion of the beam will strike the windshield, or any windows, mirror, or occupant of another vehicle in use.

(2) – FOG LAMPS. – Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not to exceed two fog lamps mounted on the front at a height not less than 12 inches nor more than 30 inches above the level surface upon which the vehicle stands and so aimed that when the vehicle is not loaded none of the high intensity portion of the light to the left of the center of the vehicle shall at a distance of 25 feet ahead project higher than a level of 4 inches below the level of the center of the lamp from which it comes. Lighted fog lamps meeting the above requirements may be used with lower headlamp beams as specified in s. 316.237(1)(b).

(3) – AUXILIARY PASSING LAMPS. – Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not to exceed two auxiliary passing lamps mounted on the front at a height not less than 24 inches nor more than 42 inches above the level surface upon which the vehicle stands. The provisions of s. 316.237 shall apply to any combination of headlamps and auxiliary passing lamps.

(4) – AUXILIARY DRIVING LAMPS. – Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not to exceed two auxiliary driving lamps mounted on the front at a height not less than 16 inches nor more than 42 inches above the level surface upon which the vehicle stands. The provisions of s. 316.237 shall apply to any combination of headlamps and auxiliary driving lamps.

(5) – VIOLATIONS. – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 183, ch. 99-248.

316.234: Signal lamps and signal devices. – (1) – Any vehicle may be equipped and, when required under this chapter, shall be equipped with a stop lamp or lamps on the rear of the vehicle which shall display a red or amber light, visible from a distance of not less than 300 feet to the rear in normal sunlight, and which shall be actuated upon application of the service (foot) brake, and which may but need not be incorporated with one or more other rear lamps. An object, material, or covering that alters the stop lamp’s visibility from 300 feet to the rear in normal sunlight may not be placed, displayed, installed, affixed, or applied over a stop lamp.

(2) – Any vehicle may be equipped and, when required under s. 316.222(2), shall be equipped with electric turn signals which shall indicate an intention to turn by flashing lights showing to the front and rear of a vehicle or on a combination of vehicles on the side of the vehicle or combination toward which the turn is to be made. The lamps showing to the front shall be mounted on the same level and as widely spaced laterally as practicable and, when signaling, shall emit white or amber light. The lamps showing to the rear shall be mounted on the same level and as widely spaced laterally as practicable, and, when signaling, shall emit a red or amber light. Turn signal lamps on vehicles 80 inches or more in overall width shall be visible from a distance of not less than 500 feet to the front and rear in normal sunlight, and an object, material, or covering that alters the lamp’s visibility from a distance of 500 feet to the front or rear in normal sunlight may not be placed, displayed, installed, affixed, or applied over a turn signal lamp. Turn signal lamps on vehicles less than 80 inches wide shall be visible at a distance of not less than 300 feet to the front and rear in normal sunlight, and an object, material, or covering that alters the lamp’s visibility from a distance of 300 feet to the front or rear in normal sunlight may not be placed, displayed, installed, affixed, or applied over a turn signal lamp. Turn signal lamps may, but need not be, incorporated in other lamps on the vehicle.

(3) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 184, ch. 99-248; s. 12, ch. 2000-313.

316.235: Additional lighting equipment. – (1) – Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not more than two side cowl or fender lamps which shall emit an amber or white light without glare.

(2) – Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not more than one running board courtesy lamp on each side thereof which shall emit a white or amber light without glare.

(3) – Any motor vehicle may be equipped with one or more backup lamps either separately or in combination with other lamps, but any such backup lamp or lamps shall not be lighted when the motor vehicle is in forward motion.

(4) – Any vehicle 80 inches or more in overall width, if not otherwise required by s. 316.2225, may be equipped with not more than three identification lamps showing to the front which shall emit an amber light without glare and not more than three identification lamps showing to the rear which shall emit a red light without glare. Such lamps shall be mounted as specified in this chapter.

(5) – A bus, as defined in s. 316.003(3), may be equipped with a deceleration lighting system which cautions following vehicles that the bus is slowing, preparing to stop, or is stopped. Such lighting system shall consist of amber lights mounted in horizontal alignment on the rear of the vehicle at or near the vertical centerline of the vehicle, not higher than the lower edge of the rear window or, if the vehicle has no rear window, not higher than 72 inches from the ground. Such lights shall be visible from a distance of not less than 300 feet to the rear in normal sunlight. Lights are permitted to light and flash during deceleration, braking, or standing and idling of the bus. Vehicular hazard warning flashers may be used in conjunction with or in lieu of a rear-mounted deceleration lighting system.

(6) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 27, ch. 76-31; s. 3, ch. 86-23; s. 185, ch. 99-248.

316.237: Multiple-beam road-lighting equipment. – (1) – Except as hereinafter provided, the headlamps or the auxiliary driving lamp or the auxiliary passing lamp or combination thereof on motor vehicles shall be so arranged that the driver may select at will between distributions of light projected to different elevations and such lamps may, in addition, be so arranged that such selection can be made automatically, subject to the following limitations:

(a) – There shall be an uppermost distribution of light, or composite beam, so aimed and of such intensity as to reveal persons and vehicles at a distance of at least 450 feet ahead for all conditions of loading.

(b) – There shall be a lowermost distribution of light, or composite beam, so aimed and of sufficient intensity to reveal persons and vehicles at a distance of at least 150 feet ahead; and on a straight level road under any condition of loading none of the high intensity portion of the beam shall be directed to strike the eyes of an approaching driver.

An object, material, or covering that alters the headlamp’s visibility from at least 450 feet for an uppermost distribution of light or at least 150 feet for a lowermost distribution of light may not be placed, displayed, installed, affixed, or applied over a headlamp.

(2) – Every new motor vehicle registered in this state shall be equipped with a beam indicator, which shall be lighted whenever the uppermost distribution of light from the headlamps is in use, and shall not otherwise be lighted. Said indicator shall be so designed and located that when lighted it will be readily visible without glare to the driver of the vehicle so equipped.

(3) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 186, ch. 99-248; s. 13, ch. 2000-313.

316.238: Use of multiple-beam road-lighting equipment. – (1) – Whenever a motor vehicle is being operated on a roadway or shoulder adjacent thereto during the times specified in s. 316.217, the driver shall use a distribution of light, or composite beam, directed high enough and of sufficient intensity to reveal persons and vehicles at a safe distance in advance of the vehicle, subject to the following requirements and limitations:

(a) – Whenever the driver of a vehicle approaches an oncoming vehicle within 500 feet, such driver shall use a distribution of light, or composite beam, so aimed that the glaring rays are not projected into the eyes of the oncoming driver. The lowermost distribution of light, or composite beam, specified in ss. 316.237(1)(b) and 316.430(2)(b) shall be deemed to avoid glare at all times, regardless of road contour and loading.

(b) – Whenever the driver of a vehicle approaches another vehicle from the rear within 300 feet, such driver shall use a distribution of light permissible under this chapter other than the uppermost distribution of light specified in ss. 316.237(1)(a) and 316.430(2)(a).

(2) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a moving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 28, ch. 76-31; s. 187, ch. 99-248.

316.2385: Requirements for use of lower beam. – The lower or passing beam shall be used at all times during the twilight hours in the morning and the twilight hours in the evening, and during fog, smoke and rain. Twilight shall mean the time between sunset and full night or between full night and sunrise. A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a moving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 91, ch. 73-333; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 188, ch. 99-248.

Note. – Former s. 316.236.

316.239: Single-beam road-lighting equipment. – (1) – Headlamp systems which provide only a single distribution of light shall be permitted on all farm tractors regardless of date of manufacture, and on other motor vehicles manufactured and sold prior to January 1, 1972, in lieu of multiple-beam road-lighting equipment herein specified if the single distribution of light complies with the following requirements and limitations:

(a) – The headlamps shall be so aimed that when the vehicle is not loaded none of the high intensity portion of the light shall, at a distance of 25 feet ahead, project higher than a level of five inches below the level of the center of the lamp from which it comes, and in no case higher than 42 inches above the level on which the vehicle stands at a distance of 75 feet ahead.

(b) – The intensity shall be sufficient to reveal persons and vehicles at a distance of at least 200 feet.

(2) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 189, ch. 99-248.

316.2395: Motor vehicles; minimum headlamp requirement. – Any motor vehicle may be operated at nighttime under the conditions specified in ss. 316.237 and 316.239, when equipped with two lighted lamps upon the front thereof capable of revealing persons and objects 100 feet ahead in lieu of lamps required in ss. 316.237 and 316.239. However, at no time when lighted lamps are required shall such motor vehicle be operated in excess of 20 miles per hour. A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 190, ch. 99-248.

Note. – Former s. 316.219.

316.2396: Number of driving lamps required or permitted. – (1) – At all times specified in s. 316.217, at least two lighted lamps shall be displayed, one on each side at the front of every motor vehicle, except when such vehicle is parked subject to the regulations governing lights on parked vehicles.

(2) – Whenever a motor vehicle equipped with headlamps, as herein required, is also equipped with any auxiliary lamps or a spot lamp or any other lamp on the front thereof projecting a beam of intensity greater than 300 candlepower, not more than a total of 4 of any such lamps on the front of a vehicle shall be lighted at any one time when upon a highway.

(3) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 191, ch. 99-248.

Note. – Former s. 316.218.

316.2397: Certain lights prohibited; exceptions. – (1) – No person shall drive or move or cause to be moved any vehicle or equipment upon any highway within this state with any lamp or device thereon showing or displaying a red or blue light visible from directly in front thereof except for certain vehicles hereinafter provided.

(2) – It is expressly prohibited for any vehicle or equipment, except police vehicles, to show or display blue lights. However, vehicles owned, operated, or leased by the Department of Corrections or any county correctional agency may show or display blue lights when responding to emergencies.

(3) – Vehicles of the fire department and fire patrol, including vehicles of volunteer firefighters as permitted under s. 316.2398, vehicles of medical staff physicians or technicians of medical facilities licensed by the state as authorized under s. 316.2398, ambulances as authorized under this chapter, and buses and taxicabs as authorized under s. 316.2399 may show or display red lights. Vehicles of the fire department, fire patrol, police vehicles, and such ambulances and emergency vehicles of municipal and county departments, public service corporations operated by private corporations, the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, the Department of Environmental Protection, the Department of Transportation, the Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Department of Corrections as are designated or authorized by their respective department or the chief of police of an incorporated city or any sheriff of any county may operate emergency lights and sirens in an emergency. Wreckers, mosquito control fog and spray vehicles, and emergency vehicles of governmental departments or public service corporations may show or display amber lights when in actual operation or when a hazard exists provided they are not used going to and from the scene of operation or hazard without specific authorization of a law enforcement officer or law enforcement agency. Wreckers must use amber rotating or flashing lights while performing recoveries and loading on the roadside day or night, and may use such lights while towing a vehicle on wheel lifts, slings, or under reach if the operator of the wrecker deems such lights necessary. A flatbed, car carrier, or rollback may not use amber rotating or flashing lights when hauling a vehicle on the bed unless it creates a hazard to other motorists because of protruding objects. Further, escort vehicles may show or display amber lights when in the actual process of escorting overdimensioned equipment, material, or buildings as authorized by law. Vehicles owned or leased by private security agencies may show or display green and amber lights, with either color being no greater than 50 percent of the lights displayed, while the security personnel are engaged in security duties on private or public property.

(4) – Road or street maintenance equipment, road or street maintenance vehicles, road service vehicles, refuse collection vehicles, petroleum tankers, and mail carrier vehicles may show or display amber lights when in operation or a hazard exists. A commercial motor vehicle or trailer designed to transport unprocessed logs or pulpwood may show or display an amber light affixed to the rearmost point of the vehicle or trailer.

(5) – Road maintenance and construction equipment and vehicles may display flashing white lights or flashing white strobe lights when in operation and where a hazard exists. Additionally, school buses and vehicles that are used to transport farm workers may display flashing white strobe lights.

(6) – All lighting equipment heretofore referred to shall meet all requirements as set forth in s. 316.241.

(7) – Flashing lights are prohibited on vehicles except:

(a) – As a means of indicating a right or left turn, to change lanes, or to indicate that the vehicle is lawfully stopped or disabled upon the highway;

(b) – When a motorist intermittently flashes his or her vehicle’s headlamps at an oncoming vehicle notwithstanding the motorist’s intent for doing so; and

(c) – For the lamps authorized under subsections (1), (2), (3), (4), and (9), s. 316.2065, or s. 316.235(5) which may flash.

(8) – Subsections (1) and (7) do not apply to police, fire, or authorized emergency vehicles while in the performance of their necessary duties.

(9) – Flashing red lights may be used by emergency response vehicles of the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, the Department of Environmental Protection, and the Department of Health when responding to an emergency in the line of duty.

(10) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; ss. 1, 23, ch. 76-31; s. 2, ch. 80-176; s. 1, ch. 84-49; s. 4, ch. 86-23; s. 1, ch. 87-157; s. 1, ch. 89-49; s. 58, ch. 93-164; s. 23, ch. 94-306; s. 900, ch. 95-148; s. 17, ch. 96-263; s. 2, ch. 96-312; s. 7, ch. 97-280; s. 17, ch. 97-300; s. 192, ch. 99-248; s. 134, ch. 2002-20; s. 3, ch. 2002-217; s. 1, ch. 2004-20; s. 1, ch. 2007-52; s. 2, ch. 2007-210; s. 1, ch. 2009-220; s. 12, ch. 2012-88; s. 10, ch. 2012-181; s. 2, ch. 2014-169.

Note. – Former s. 316.223.

316.2398: Display or use of red warning signals; motor vehicles of volunteer firefighters or medical staff. – (1) – A privately owned vehicle belonging to an active firefighter member of a regularly organized volunteer firefighting company or association, while en route to the fire station for the purpose of proceeding to the scene of a fire or other emergency or while en route to the scene of a fire or other emergency in the line of duty as an active firefighter member of a regularly organized firefighting company or association, or a privately owned vehicle belonging to a medical staff physician or technician of a medical facility licensed by the state, while responding to an emergency in the line of duty, may display or use red warning signals visible from the front and from the rear of such vehicle, subject to the following restrictions and conditions:

(a) – No more than two red warning signals may be displayed.

(b) – No inscription of any kind may appear across the face of the lens of the red warning signal.

(c) – In order for an active volunteer firefighter to display such red warning signals on his or her vehicle, the volunteer firefighter must first secure a written permit from the chief executive officers of the firefighting organization to use the red warning signals, and this permit must be carried by the volunteer firefighter at all times while the red warning signals are displayed.

(2) – It is unlawful for any person who is not an active firefighter member of a regularly organized volunteer firefighting company or association or a physician or technician of the medical staff of a medical facility licensed by the state to display on any motor vehicle owned by him or her, at any time, any red warning signals as described in subsection (1).

(3) – It is unlawful for an active volunteer firefighter to operate any red warning signals as authorized in subsection (1), except while en route to the fire station for the purpose of proceeding to the scene of a fire or other emergency, or while at or en route to the scene of a fire or other emergency, in the line of duty.

(4) – It is unlawful for a physician or technician of the medical staff of a medical facility to operate any red warning signals as authorized in subsection (1), except when responding to an emergency in the line of duty.

(5) – A violation of this section is a nonmoving violation, punishable as provided in chapter 318. In addition, any volunteer firefighter shall be dismissed from membership in the firefighting organization by the chief executive officers thereof.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 1, ch. 77-454; s. 3, ch. 80-176; s. 2, ch. 87-157; s. 324, ch. 95-148; s. 31, ch. 96-350; s. 1, ch. 2003-165.

Note. – Former s. 316.292.

316.2399: Special warning lights for buses or taxicabs. – The provisions of s. 316.2397(7) to the contrary notwithstanding, a bus or taxicab may be equipped with two flashing devices for the purpose of warning the operators of other vehicles and law enforcement agents that an emergency situation exists within the bus or taxicab. Such devices shall be capable of activation by the operator of the bus or taxicab and shall be of a type approved by the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles. Such devices shall be mounted one at the front and one at the rear of the bus or taxicab and shall display flashing red lights which shine on the roadway under the vehicle. A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 2, ch. 89-49; s. 91, ch. 99-13; s. 193, ch. 99-248.

316.240: Standards for lights on highway maintenance and service equipment. – (1) – The Department of Transportation shall adopt standards and specifications applicable to headlamps, clearance lamps, and identification and other lamps on highway maintenance and service equipment when operated on state roads and county road system of this state in lieu of the lamps otherwise required on motor vehicles by this chapter. Such standards and specifications may permit the use of flashing lights for purposes of identification on highway maintenance and service equipment when in service upon the highways. The standards and specifications for lamps referred to in this section shall correlate with, and as far as possible conform with, those approved by the American Association of State Highway Officials.

(2) – It is unlawful to operate any highway maintenance and service equipment on any highway as described heretofore unless the lamps thereon comply with and are lighted when and as required by the standards and specifications adopted as provided in this section.

(3) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 194, ch. 99-248.

316.241: Selling or using lamps or equipment. – (1) – No person shall have for sale, sell or offer for sale for use upon or as a part of the equipment of a motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer, or pole trailer or use upon any such vehicle any headlamp, auxiliary or fog lamp, rear lamp, signal lamp, or reflector, which reflector is required hereunder, or parts of any of the foregoing, which tend to change the original design or performance, unless of a type which has been submitted to the department and approved. The foregoing provisions of this section shall not apply to equipment in actual use when this section is adopted or replacement parts therefor.

(2) – No person shall have for sale, sell, or offer for sale for use upon or as a part of the equipment of a motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer, or pole trailer any lamp or device mentioned in this section which has been approved by the department unless such lamp or device bears thereon the trademark or name under which it is approved so as to be legible when installed.

(3) – No person shall use upon any motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer, or pole trailer any lamps mentioned in this section unless said lamps are mounted, adjusted, and aimed in accordance with instructions of the department.

(4) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 195, ch. 99-248.

316.242: Revocation of certificate of approval on lighting devices. – (1) – When the department has reason to believe that an approved lighting device as being sold commercially does not comply with the requirements of this chapter, it may, after giving 30 days’ previous notice to the person holding the certificate of approval for such device in this state, conduct a hearing upon the question of compliance of the approved device. After the hearing the department shall determine whether the approved device meets the requirements of this chapter. If the device does not meet the requirements of this chapter it shall give notice to the person holding the certificate of approval for such device in this state.

(2) – If at the expiration of 90 days after such notice the person holding the certificate of approval for the device has failed to satisfy the department that the approved device as thereafter to be sold meets the requirements of this chapter, the department shall suspend or revoke the approval issued therefor until or unless such device is resubmitted to and retested by an authorized testing agency and is found to meet the requirements of this chapter, and may require that all said devices sold since the notification following the hearing be replaced with devices that do comply with the requirements of this chapter. The department may at the time of the retest purchase in the open market and submit to the testing agency one or more sets of such approved devices, and if the device upon retest fails to meet the requirements of this chapter, the department may refuse to renew the certificate of approval of such device.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135.

316.251: Maximum bumper heights. – (1) – Every motor vehicle of net shipping weight of not more than 5,000 pounds shall be equipped with a front and a rear bumper such that when measured from the ground to the bottom of the bumper the maximum height shall be as follows:

NET WEIGHT FRONT REAR
Automobiles for private use:
Net weight of less than 2,500 pounds 22″ 22″
Net weight of 2,500 pounds or more, but less than 3,500 pounds 24″ 26″
Net weight of 3,500 pounds or more 27″ 29″
Trucks:
Net weight of less than 2,000 pounds 24″ 26″
Net weight of 2,000 or more, but not more than 3,000 pounds 27″ 29″
Net weight of 3,000 pounds, but not more than 5,000 pounds 28″ 30″

(2) – “New motor vehicles” as defined in s. 319.001(9), “antique automobiles” as defined in s. 320.08, “horseless carriages” as defined in s. 320.086, and “street rods” as defined in s. 320.0863 shall be excluded from the requirements of this section.

(3) – A violation of this section shall be defined as a moving violation. A person charged with a violation of this section is subject to the penalty provided in s. 318.18.

History – s. 1, ch. 85-158; s. 7, ch. 86-36; s. 23, ch. 91-221; s. 196, ch. 99-248; s. 18, ch. 2002-235; s. 7, ch. 2008-176.

316.252: Splash and spray suppressant devices. – (1) – No person shall drive or operate, or cause to be driven or operated, any truck of gross vehicle weight of 26,000 pounds or more, any truck tractor, or any trailer or semitrailer the net weight of which is 2,000 pounds or more unless such vehicle is equipped with fenders, covers, or other splash and spray suppressant devices, such as substantial flexible flaps on the rearmost wheels of such vehicle or combination of vehicles, which will effectively prevent or minimize the splash or spray of water or mud and the throwing of other materials on the windshields of following vehicles. The provisions of this section shall not apply to vehicles used exclusively for the purpose of producing, processing, or transporting agricultural products, including horticultural products or forestry products.

(2) – The Department of Transportation shall adopt rules necessary for the implementation of this section.

(3) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 87-165; s. 197, ch. 99-248.

316.253: Vehicles used to sell ice cream and other confections; display of warnings required. – Any person who sells ice cream or other frozen confections at retail from a motor vehicle shall display on each side of such motor vehicle, in letters at least 3 inches high, a warning containing the words “look out for children” or “caution: children” or such similar words as are approved by the department. A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 12, ch. 86-185; s. 198, ch. 99-248.

316.261: Brake equipment required. – Every motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer, and pole trailer, and any combination of such vehicles, operating upon a highway within this state shall be equipped with brakes in compliance with the requirements of this chapter.

(1) – SERVICE BRAKES; ADEQUACY. – Every such vehicle and combination of vehicles, except special mobile equipment not designed to carry persons, shall be equipped with service brakes adequate to control the movement of and to stop and hold such vehicle under all conditions of loading, and on any grade incident to its operation.

(2) – PARKING BRAKES; ADEQUACY. – Every such vehicle and combination of vehicles shall be equipped with parking brakes adequate to hold the vehicle on any grade on which it is operated, under all conditions of loading, on a surface free of loose material. The parking brakes shall be capable of being applied in conformance with the foregoing requirements by the driver’s muscular effort or by spring action or by equivalent means. Their operation may be assisted by the service brakes or other source of power provided that failure of the service brake actuation system or other power assisting mechanism will not prevent the parking brakes from being applied in conformance with the foregoing requirements. The parking brakes shall be so designed that when once applied they shall remain applied with the required effectiveness despite exhaustion of any source of energy or leakage of any kind. The same brakedrums, brakeshoes and lining assemblies, brakeshoe anchors, and mechanical brakeshoe actuation mechanism normally associated with the wheel-brake assemblies may be used for both the service brakes and the parking brakes. If the means of applying the parking brakes and the service brakes are connected in any way, they shall be so constructed that failure of any one part shall not leave the vehicle without operative brakes.

(3) – BRAKES ON ALL WHEELS. – Every vehicle shall be equipped with brakes acting on all wheels except:

(a) – Trailers, semitrailers, or pole trailers of a gross weight not exceeding 3,000 pounds, provided that:

1. – The total weight on and including the wheels of the trailer or trailers shall not exceed 40 percent of the gross weight of the towing vehicle when connected to the trailer or trailers; and

2. – The combination of vehicles, consisting of the towing vehicle and its total towed load, is capable of complying with the performance requirements of s. 316.262.

(b) – Pole trailers with a gross weight in excess of 3,000 pounds manufactured prior to January 1, 1972, need not be equipped with brakes.

(c) – Any vehicle being towed in driveaway or towaway operations, provided the combination of vehicles is capable of complying with the performance requirements of s. 316.262.

(d) – Trucks and truck tractors having three or more axles need not have brakes on the front wheels, except that when such vehicles are equipped with at least two steerable axles, the wheels of one steerable axle need not have brakes. However, such trucks and truck tractors must be capable of complying with the performance requirements of s. 316.262.

(e) – Special mobile equipment not designed to carry persons.

(f) – “Antique cars” as defined in s. 320.08, and “horseless carriages” as defined in s. 320.086.

(g) – Four-wheeled motorized golf carts operated by municipal or county law enforcement officers on official business.

(4) – AUTOMATIC TRAILER BRAKE APPLICATION UPON BREAKAWAY. – Every trailer, semitrailer, and pole trailer with air or vacuum-actuated brakes, every trailer and semitrailer with a gross weight in excess of 3,000 pounds, and every pole trailer with a gross weight in excess of 3,000 pounds manufactured or assembled after January 1, 1972, shall be equipped with brakes acting on all wheels and of such character as to be applied automatically and promptly, and remain applied for at least 15 minutes, upon breakaway from the towing vehicle.

(5) – TRACTOR BRAKES PROTECTED. – Every motor vehicle manufactured or assembled after January 1, 1972, and used to tow a trailer, semitrailer, or pole trailer equipped with brakes, shall be equipped with means for providing that in case of breakaway of the towed vehicle, the towing vehicle will be capable of being stopped by the use of its service brakes.

(6) – TRAILER AIR RESERVOIRS SAFEGUARDED. – Air brake systems installed on trailers manufactured or assembled after January 1, 1972, shall be so designed that the supply reservoir used to provide air for the brakes shall be safeguarded against backflow of air from the reservoir through the supply line.

(7) – TWO MEANS OF EMERGENCY BRAKE OPERATION. –

(a) – Every towing vehicle, when used to tow another vehicle equipped with air-controlled brakes, in other than driveaway or towaway operations, shall be equipped with two means for emergency application of the trailer brakes. One of these means shall apply the brakes automatically in the event of a reduction of the towing vehicle air supply to a fixed pressure which shall not be lower than 20 pounds per square inch nor higher than 45 pounds per square inch. The other means shall be a manually controlled device for applying and releasing the brakes, readily operable by a person seated in the driving seat, and its emergency position or method of operation shall be clearly indicated. In no instance may the manual means be so arranged as to permit its use to prevent operation of the automatic means. The automatic and the manual means required by this section may be, but are not required to be, separate.

(b) – Every towing vehicle used to tow other vehicles equipped with vacuum brakes, in operations other than driveaway or towaway operations, shall have, in addition to the single-control device required by subsection (8), a second-control device which can be used to operate the brakes on towed vehicles in emergencies. The second control shall be independent of brake air, hydraulic, and other pressure, and independent of other controls, unless the braking system is so arranged that failure of the pressure upon which the second control depends will cause the towed vehicle brakes to be applied automatically. The second control is not required to provide modulated braking.

(8) – SINGLE CONTROL TO OPERATE ALL BRAKES. – Every motor vehicle, trailer, semitrailer and pole trailer, and every combination of such vehicles, equipped with brakes shall have the braking system so arranged that one control device can be used to operate all service brakes. This requirement does not prohibit vehicles from being equipped with an additional control device to be used to operate brakes on the towed vehicles. This regulation does not apply to driveaway or towaway operations unless the brakes on the individual vehicles are designed to be operated by a single control on the towing vehicle.

(9) – RESERVOIR CAPACITY AND CHECK VALVE. –

(a) – Air brakes. – Every bus, truck or truck tractor with air-operated brakes shall be equipped with at least one reservoir sufficient to ensure that, when fully charged to the maximum pressure as regulated by the air compressor governor cutout setting, a full service-brake application may be made without lowering such reservoir pressure by more than 20 percent. Each reservoir shall be provided with means for readily draining accumulated oil or water.

(b) – Vacuum brakes. – Every truck with three or more axles equipped with vacuum assistor-type brakes and every truck tractor and truck used for towing a vehicle equipped with vacuum brakes shall be equipped with a reserve capacity or a vacuum reservoir sufficient to ensure that, with the reserve capacity or reservoir fully charged and with the engine stopped, a full service-brake application may be made without depleting the vacuum supply by more than 40 percent.

(c) – Reservoir safeguarded. – All motor vehicles, trailers, semitrailers, and pole trailers, when equipped with air or vacuum reservoirs or reserve capacity as required by this section, shall have such reservoirs or reserve capacity so safeguarded by a check valve or equivalent device that in the event of failure or leakage in its connection to the source of compressed air or vacuum, the stored air or vacuum shall not be depleted by the leak or failure.

(10) – WARNING DEVICES. –

(a) – Air brakes. – Every bus, truck or truck tractor using compressed air for the operation of its own brakes or the brakes on any towed vehicle shall be provided with a warning signal, other than a pressure gauge, readily audible or visible to the driver, which will operate at any time the air reservoir pressure of the vehicle is below 50 percent of the air compressor governor cutout pressure. In addition, each such vehicle shall be equipped with a pressure gauge visible to the driver, which indicates in pounds per square inch the pressure available for braking.

(b) – Vacuum brakes. – Every truck tractor and truck used for towing a vehicle equipped with vacuum operated brakes and every truck with three or more axles using vacuum in the operation of its brakes, except those in driveaway or towaway operations, shall be equipped with a warning signal, other than a gauge indicating vacuum, readily audible or visible to the driver, which will operate at any time the vacuum in the vehicle’s supply reservoir or reserve capacity is less than 8 inches of mercury.

(c) – Combination of warning devices. – When a vehicle required to be equipped with a warning device is equipped with both air and vacuum power for the operation of its own brakes or the brakes on a towed vehicle, the warning devices may be, but are not required to be, combined into a single device which will serve both purposes. A gauge or gauges indicating pressure or vacuum shall not be deemed to be an adequate means of satisfying this requirement.

(11) – VIOLATIONS. – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 3, ch. 92-296; s. 199, ch. 99-248.

316.262: Performance ability of motor vehicle brakes. – (1) – Every motor vehicle and combination of vehicles, at all times and under all conditions of loading, upon application of the service brake, shall be capable of:

(a) – Developing a braking force that is not less than the percentage of its gross weight tabulated herein for its classification;

(b) – Decelerating to a stop from not more than 20 miles per hour at not less than the feet per second per second tabulated herein for its classification; and

(c) – Stopping from a speed of 20 miles per hour in not more than the distance tabulated herein for its classification, such distance to be measured from the point at which movement of the service brake pedal or control begins.

(2) – Tests for deceleration and stopping distance shall be made on a substantially level (not to exceed plus or minus 1 percent grade), dry, smooth, hard surface that is free from loose material.

Classification of vehicles Braking force as a percentage of gross vehicle or combination weight Deceleration in feet per second per second Brake system application and braking distance in feet from an initial speed of 20 mph
A Passenger vehicles with a seating capacity of 10 people or less including driver, not having a manufacturer’s gross vehicle weight rating 52.8% 17 25
B Single unit vehicles with a manufacturer’s gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000 pounds or less 43.5% 14 30
C-1 Single unit vehicles with a manufacturer’s gross weight rating of more than 10,000 pounds 43.5% 14 40
C-2 Combination of a two-axle towing vehicle and a trailer with a gross trailer weight of 3,000 pounds or less 43.5% 14 40
C-3 Buses, regardless of the number of axles, not having a manufacturer’s gross weight rating 43.5% 14 40
C-4 All combinations of vehicles in driveaway-towaway operations 43.5% 14 40
D All other vehicles and combinations of vehicles 43.5% 14 50

(3) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 2, ch. 87-225; s. 200, ch. 99-248.

316.263: Maintenance of brakes. – All brakes shall be maintained in good working order and shall be so adjusted as to operate as equally as practicable with respect to the wheels on opposite sides of the vehicle. A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 201, ch. 99-248.

316.267: Brakes on electric-powered vehicles. – When operated on the public streets and roads, every electric-powered vehicle with a rating of 3 to 6 horsepower shall be equipped with hydraulic brakes on the two rear wheels and at all times and under all conditions of loading, upon application of the service brake, shall be capable of:

(1) – Developing a braking force that is not less than 43.5 percent of its gross weight.

(2) – Decelerating to a stop from not more than 20 miles per hour at not less than 17 feet per second.

(3) – Stopping from a speed of 20 miles per hour in not more than 25 feet, such distance to be measured from the point at which movement of the service brake pedal or control begins.

A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 2, ch. 76-34; s. 202, ch. 99-248.

316.271: Horns and warning devices. – (1) – Every motor vehicle when operated upon a highway shall be equipped with a horn in good working order and capable of emitting sound audible under normal conditions from a distance of not less than 200 feet.

(2) – No horn or other warning device shall emit an unreasonably loud or harsh sound or a whistle.

(3) – The driver of a motor vehicle shall, when reasonably necessary to ensure safe operation, give audible warning with his or her horn.

(4) – No vehicle shall be equipped with, nor shall any person use upon a vehicle, any siren, whistle, or bell, except as otherwise permitted in this section.

(5) – It is permissible but not required that any vehicle be equipped with a theft alarm signal device which is so arranged that it cannot be used by the driver as an ordinary warning signal.

(6) – Every authorized emergency vehicle shall be equipped with a siren, whistle, or bell capable of emitting sound audible under normal conditions from a distance of not less than 500 feet and of a type approved by the department, but such siren, whistle, or bell shall not be used except when the vehicle is operated in response to an emergency call or in the immediate pursuit of an actual or suspected violator of the law, in which event the driver of the vehicle shall sound the siren, whistle, or bell when reasonably necessary to warn pedestrians and other drivers of the approach thereof.

(7) – Notwithstanding the other provisions of this section, a trolley may be equipped with a bell, and the bell is not required to be used only as a warning device. As used in this subsection, the term “trolley” includes any bus which resembles a streetcar, which is powered by overhead electric wires or is self-propelled, and which is used primarily as a public conveyance.

(8) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 4, ch. 86-36; s. 1, ch. 88-91; s. 325, ch. 95-148; s. 203, ch. 99-248; s. 72, ch. 2012-181.

316.272: Exhaust systems, prevention of noise. – (1) – Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with an exhaust system in good working order and in constant operation, including muffler, manifold pipe, and tailpiping to prevent excessive or unusual noise. In no event shall an exhaust system allow noise at a level which exceeds a maximum decibel level to be established by regulation of the Department of Environmental Protection as provided in s. 403.061(11) in cooperation with the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles. No person shall use a muffler cutout, bypass or similar device upon a vehicle on a highway.

(2) – The engine and power mechanism of every motor vehicle shall be so equipped and adjusted as to prevent the escape of excessive fumes or smoke.

(3) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 72-39; s. 1, ch. 73-89; s. 27, ch. 79-65; s. 135, ch. 94-356; s. 204, ch. 99-248; s. 30, ch. 2006-1.

316.293: Motor vehicle noise. – (1) – DEFINITIONS. – The following words and phrases, when used in this section, shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in this subsection, except where the context otherwise requires:

(a) – “dB A” means the composite abbreviation for the A-weighted sound level and the unit of sound level, the decibel.

(b) – “Gross combination weight rating” or “GCWR” means the value specified by the manufacturer as the loaded weight of a combination vehicle.

(c) – “Gross vehicle weight rating” or “GVWR” means the value specified by the manufacturer as the loaded weight of a single vehicle.

(d) – “Sound level” means the A-weighted sound pressure level measured with fast response using an instrument complying with the specification for sound level meters of the American National Standards Institute, Inc., or its successor bodies, except that only A-weighting and fast dynamic response need be provided.

(e) – “Department” means the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles.

(2) – OPERATING NOISE LIMITS. – No person shall operate or be permitted to operate a vehicle at any time or under any condition of roadway grade, load, acceleration, or deceleration in such a manner as to generate a sound level in excess of the following limit for the category of motor vehicle and applicable speed limit at a distance of 50 feet from the center of the lane of travel under measurement procedures established under subsection (3).

(a) – For motorcycles other than motor-driven cycles:

Sound level limit
Speed limit
35 mph or less
Speed limit
over 35 mph
Before January 1, 1979 82 dB A 86 dB A
On or after
January 1, 1979
78 dB A 82 dB A

(b) – For any motor vehicle with a GVWR or GCWR of 10,000 pounds or more:

Sound level limit
Speed limit
35 mph or less
Speed limit
over 35 mph
On or after
January 1, 1975
86 dB A 90 dB A

(c) – For motor-driven cycles and any other motor vehicle not included in paragraph (a) or paragraph (b):

Sound level limit
Speed limit
35 mph or less
Speed limit
over 35 mph
Before January 1, 1979 76 dB A 82 dB A
On or after
January 1, 1979
72 dB A 79 dB A

(3) – MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES. – The measurement procedures for determining compliance with this section shall be established by regulation of the Department of Environmental Protection as provided in s. 403.415(9), in cooperation with the department. Such regulations shall include the selection of measurement sites and measurement procedures and shall take into consideration accepted scientific and professional methods for the measurement of vehicular sound levels. The measurement procedures may include adjustment factors to be applied to the noise limit for measurement distances of other than 50 feet from the center of the lane of travel.

(4) – APPLICABILITY. – This section applies to the total noise from a vehicle and shall not be construed as limiting or precluding the enforcement of any other provisions of this chapter relating to motor vehicle mufflers for noise control.

(5) – NOISE ABATEMENT EQUIPMENT MODIFICATIONS. –

(a) – No person shall modify the exhaust system of a motor vehicle or any other noise-abatement device of a motor vehicle operated or to be operated upon the highways of this state in such a manner that the noise emitted by the motor vehicle is above that emitted by the vehicle as originally manufactured.

(b) – No person shall operate a motor vehicle upon the highways of the state with an exhaust system or noise-abatement device so modified.

(6) – EXEMPT VEHICLES. – The following are exempt from the operation of this act:

(a) – Emergency vehicles operating as specified in s. 316.072(5)(a).

(b) – Any motor vehicle engaged in a professional or amateur sanctioned, competitive sports event for which admission or entry fee is charged, or practice or time trials for such event.

(c) – Any motor vehicle engaged in a manufacturer’s engineering, design, or equipment test.

(d) – Construction or agricultural equipment either on a job site or traveling on the highways.

(7) – VIOLATIONS. – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 4, ch. 74-110; s. 32, ch. 76-31; s. 2, ch. 78-280; s. 28, ch. 79-65; s. 136, ch. 94-356; s. 16, ch. 97-300; s. 205, ch. 99-248.

316.2935: Air pollution control equipment; tampering prohibited; penalty. – (1)(a) – It is unlawful for any person or motor vehicle dealer as defined in s. 320.27 to offer or display for retail sale or lease, sell, lease, or transfer title to, a motor vehicle in Florida that has been tampered with in violation of this section, as determined pursuant to subsection (7). Tampering is defined as the dismantling, removal, or rendering ineffective of any air pollution control device or system which has been installed on a motor vehicle by the vehicle manufacturer except to replace such device or system with a device or system equivalent in design and function to the part that was originally installed on the motor vehicle. All motor vehicles sold, reassigned, or traded to a licensed motor vehicle dealer are exempt from this paragraph.

(b) – At the time of sale, lease, or transfer of title of a motor vehicle, the seller, lessor, or transferor shall certify in writing to the purchaser, lessee, or transferee that the air pollution control equipment of the motor vehicle has not been tampered with by the seller, lessor, or transferor or their agents, employees, or other representatives. A licensed motor vehicle dealer shall also visually observe those air pollution control devices listed by department rule pursuant to subsection (7), and certify that they are in place, and appear properly connected and undamaged. Such certification shall not be deemed or construed as a warranty that the pollution control devices of the subject vehicle are in functional condition, nor does the execution or delivery of this certification create by itself grounds for a cause of action between the parties to this transaction.

(c) – All motor vehicles sold, reassigned, or traded by a licensed motor vehicle dealer to a licensed motor vehicle dealer, all new motor vehicles subject to certification under s. 207, Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. s. 7541, and all lease agreements for 30 days or less are exempt from this subsection. Also exempt from this subsection are sales of motor vehicles for salvage purposes only.

(2) – No person shall operate any gasoline-powered motor vehicle, except a motorcycle, moped, scooter, or an imported nonconforming motor vehicle which has received a one-time exemption from federal emission control requirements under 40 C.F.R. 85, subpart P, on the public roads and streets of this state which emits visible emissions from the exhaust pipe for more than a continuous period of 5 seconds, and no person shall operate on the public roads or streets of this state any motor vehicle that has been tampered with in violation of this section, as determined pursuant to subsection (7).

(3) – No person shall operate on the public roads or streets of this state any diesel-powered motor vehicle which emits visible emissions from the exhaust pipe for more than a continuous period of 5 seconds, except during engine acceleration, engine lugging, or engine deceleration.

(4) – This section shall be enforced by the Department of Environmental Protection and any law enforcement officer of this state as defined in s. 112.531.

(5) – Any person who knowingly and willfully violates subsection (1) shall be punished as follows:

(a) – For a first violation, violators shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, except that a motor vehicle dealer shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) – For a second or subsequent offense, violators, including motor vehicle dealers, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. In addition, the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles may temporarily or permanently revoke or suspend the motor vehicle dealer license authorized pursuant to the provisions of s. 320.27.

(6) – Except as provided in subsection (5), any person who violates subsection (1), subsection (2), or subsection (3) shall be charged with a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318. However, the penalty may be reduced if the person committing the violation corrects the violation pursuant to the provisions of s. 316.6105.

(7) – The Department of Environmental Protection shall adopt rules that define the specific wording of the required certification and the circumstances under which the certificate is not required. In addition, the department shall adopt rules as necessary to conform to requirements of federal law, to establish procedures to determine compliance with this section, including specifying what tampering activities constitute a violation of this section, and to provide for exceptions and waivers. For those rules applicable pursuant to subsection (1) to licensed motor vehicle dealers for certification by visual observation, the air pollution control devices or systems that shall be included in such certification for motor vehicles dated model year 1981 or later are the catalytic converter, fuel inlet restrictor, unvented fuel cap, exhaust gas recirculation system (EGR), air pump and/or air injector system (AIS), and fuel evaporative emissions system (EVP). The department may by rule remove or add devices or systems to this test if justified by developments in air pollution control technology or changes in federal law.

History – s. 18, ch. 88-129; s. 5, ch. 89-212; ss. 6, 9, ch. 90-290; s. 5, ch. 93-19; s. 137, ch. 94-356; s. 32, ch. 96-350; s. 206, ch. 99-248; s. 33, ch. 2000-266.

316.2937: Motor vehicle emissions standards. – If the Department of Environmental Protection proposes to adopt the California motor vehicle emission standards, such standards shall not be implemented until ratified by the Legislature. If the department proposes to modify its rule adopting the California motor vehicle emission standards, such rule modifications shall not be implemented until ratified by the Legislature.

History – s. 115, ch. 2008-227.

316.294: Mirrors. – Every vehicle, operated singly or when towing any other vehicle, shall be equipped with a mirror so located as to reflect to the driver a view of the highway for a distance of at least 200 feet to the rear of the motor vehicle. A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 207, ch. 99-248.

Note. – Former s. 316.273.

316.2951: Motor vehicle windows; definitions. – Whenever used in ss. 316.2951-316.2957, unless the context otherwise requires, the following terms have the following meanings:

(1) – “Motor vehicle” means any vehicle as defined in s. 316.003, except vehicles used in farm husbandry, which is registered or required to be registered in the state.

(2) – “Multipurpose passenger vehicle” means a motor vehicle with motive power designed to carry 10 persons or fewer which is constructed either on a truck chassis or with special features for occasional off-road operation.

(3) – “Reflectance” means the ratio of the amount of total light, expressed in a percentage, which is reflected outward by the product or material to the amount of total light falling on the product or material.

(4) – “Sunscreening material” means a product or material, including film, glazing, and perforated sunscreening, which, when applied to the windshield or windows of a motor vehicle, reduces the effects of the sun with respect to light reflectance or transmittance.

(5) – “Transmittance” means the ratio of the amount of total light, expressed in a percentage, which is allowed to pass through the product or material, including glazing, to the amount of total light falling on the product or material and the glazing.

(6) – “Window” means any device designed for exterior viewing from a motor vehicle, except the windshield, any roof-mounted viewing device, and any viewing device having less than 150 square inches in area.

(7) – “Windshield” means the front exterior viewing device of a motor vehicle.

History – s. 1, ch. 84-296.

316.2952: Windshields; requirements; restrictions. – (1) – A windshield in a fixed and upright position, which windshield is equipped with safety glazing as required by federal safety-glazing material standards, is required on every motor vehicle which is operated on the public highways, roads, and streets, except on a motorcycle or implement of husbandry.

(2) – A person shall not operate any motor vehicle on any public highway, road, or street with any sign, sunscreening material, product, or covering attached to, or located in or upon, the windshield, except the following:

(a) – A certificate or other paper required to be displayed by law.

(b) – Sunscreening material along a strip at the top of the windshield, so long as such material is transparent and does not encroach upon the driver’s direct forward viewing area as more particularly described and defined in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards No. 205 as the AS/1 portion of the windshield.

(c) – A device, issued by a governmental entity as defined in s. 334.03, or its designee, for the purpose of electronic toll payments.

(d) – A global positioning system device or similar satellite receiver device that uses the global positioning system operated pursuant to 10 U.S.C. s. 2281 to obtain navigation, to improve driver safety as a component of safety monitoring equipment capable of providing driver feedback, or to otherwise route information while the motor vehicle is being operated.

(3) – The windshield on every motor vehicle shall be equipped with a device for cleaning rain, snow, or other moisture from the windshield, which device shall be constructed as to be controlled or operated by the driver of the vehicle.

(4) – Every windshield wiper upon a motor vehicle shall be maintained in good working order.

(5) – Grove equipment, including “goats,” “highlift-goats,” grove chemical supply tanks, fertilizer distributors, fruit-loading equipment, and electric-powered vehicles regulated under the provisions of s. 316.267, are exempt from the requirements of this section. However, such electric-powered vehicles shall have a windscreen approved by the department sufficient to give protection from wind, rain, or insects, and such windscreen shall be in place whenever the vehicle is operated on the public roads and highways.

(6) – A former military vehicle is exempt from the requirements of this section if the department determines that the exemption is necessary to maintain the vehicle’s accurate military design and markings. However, whenever the vehicle is operating on the public roads and highways, the operator and passengers must wear eye-protective devices approved by the department. For purposes of this subsection, “former military vehicle” means a vehicle, including a trailer, regardless of the vehicle’s size, weight, or year of manufacture, that was manufactured for use in any country’s military forces and is maintained to represent its military design and markings accurately.

(7) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 84-296; s. 15, ch. 93-164; s. 208, ch. 99-248; s. 1, ch. 2003-286; s. 1, ch. 2005-47; s. 8, ch. 2010-223; s. 13, ch. 2014-216.

316.2953: Side windows; restrictions on sunscreening material. – A person shall not operate any motor vehicle on any public highway, road, or street on which vehicle the side wings and side windows on either side forward of or adjacent to the operator’s seat are composed of, covered by, or treated with any sunscreening material or other product or covering which has the effect of making the window nontransparent or which would alter the window’s color, increase its reflectivity, or reduce its light transmittance, except as expressly permitted by this section. A sunscreening material is authorized for such windows if, when applied to and tested on the glass of such windows on the specific motor vehicle, the material has a total solar reflectance of visible light of not more than 25 percent as measured on the nonfilm side and a light transmittance of at least 28 percent in the visible light range. A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 84-296; s. 1, ch. 91-42; s. 209, ch. 99-248.

316.2954: Windows behind the driver; restrictions on sunscreening material. – (1) – A person shall not operate any motor vehicle on any public highway, road, or street on which vehicle any windows behind the driver are composed of, covered by, or treated with any sunscreening material, or other product or material which has the effect of making the window nontransparent or which would alter the window’s color, increase its reflectivity, or reduce its light transmittance, except as specified below:

(a) – Sunscreening material consisting of film which, when applied to and tested on the rear window glass of the specific motor vehicle, has a total solar reflectance of visible light of not more than 35 percent as measured on the nonfilm side and a light transmittance of at least 15 percent in the visible light range; however, sunscreening material which, when applied to and tested on the rear window glass of the specific motor vehicle, has a total solar reflectance of visible light of not more than 35 percent as measured on the nonfilm side and a light transmittance of at least 6 percent in the visible light range may be used on multipurpose passenger vehicles.

(b) – Perforated sunscreening material which, when tested in conjunction with existing glazing or film material, has a total reflectance of visible light of not more than 35 percent and a light transmittance of no less than 30 percent. For those products or materials having different levels of reflectance, the highest reflectance from the product or material will be measured by dividing the area into 16 equal sections and averaging the overall reflectance. The measured reflectance of any of those sections may not exceed 50 percent.

(c) – Louvered materials, if the installation of the materials does not reduce driver visibility by more than 50 percent.

(d) – Privacy drapes, curtains and blinds, provided such covering is in an open and secure position when the motor vehicle is being operated on any public highway, road, or street.

(2) – A person shall not operate any motor vehicle upon any public highway, road, or street, on which vehicle the rear window is composed of, covered by, or treated with any material which has the effect of making the window nontransparent, unless the vehicle is equipped with side mirrors on both sides that meet the requirements of s. 316.294.

(3) – A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 84-296; s. 2, ch. 91-42; s. 210, ch. 99-248.

316.29545: Window sunscreening exclusions; medical exemption; certain law enforcement vehicles and private investigative service vehicles exempt. – (1) – The department shall issue medical exemption certificates to persons who are afflicted with Lupus, any autoimmune disease, or other medical conditions which require a limited exposure to light, which certificates shall entitle the person to whom the certificate is issued to have sunscreening material on the windshield, side windows, and windows behind the driver which is in violation of the requirements of ss. 316.2951-316.2957. The department shall consult with the Medical Advisory Board established in s. 322.125 for guidance with respect to the autoimmune diseases and other medical conditions which shall be included on the form of the medical certificate authorized by this section. At a minimum, the medical exemption certificate shall include a vehicle description with the make, model, year, vehicle identification number, medical exemption decal number issued for the vehicle, and the name of the person or persons who are the registered owners of the vehicle. A medical exemption certificate shall be nontransferable and shall become null and void upon the sale or transfer of the vehicle identified on the certificate.

(2) – The department shall exempt all law enforcement vehicles used in undercover or canine operations from the window sunscreening requirements of ss. 316.2951-316.2957.

(3) – The department shall exempt from the window sunscreening restrictions of ss. 316.2953, 316.2954, and 316.2956 vehicles that are owned or leased by private investigators or private investigative agencies licensed under chapter 493.

(4) – The department may charge a fee in an amount sufficient to defray the expenses of issuing a medical exemption certificate as described in subsection (1).

(5) – The department is authorized to promulgate rules for the implementation of this section.

History – s. 14, ch. 2000-313; s. 9, ch. 2010-223.

316.2955: Window sunscreening material; compliance labeling; tolerances. – (1) – Each installer or seller of sunscreening material shall provide a pressure-sensitive, self-destructive, nonremovable, vinyl-type film label to the purchaser stating that the material complies with the provisions of ss. 316.2951-316.2954. Each such installer shall affix the required label to the inside left door jamb of the motor vehicle. In addition, the label shall state the trade name of the material and the installer’s or seller’s business name. Labeling is not required for factory glazing which complies with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 205.

(2) – Every percentage measurement required by ss. 316.2951-316.2954 is subject to a tolerance of plus or minus 3 percent.

(3) – The department shall adopt rules approving light transmittance measuring devices for use in making measurements required by ss. 316.2951-316.2954. A witness otherwise qualified to testify shall be competent to give testimony regarding the percentage of light transmission when the testimony is derived from the use of an approved device. The reading from an approved device is presumed accurate and shall be admissible into evidence in the trial of any infraction arising under ss. 316.2951-316.2954.

History – s. 1, ch. 84-296; s. 24, ch. 94-306.

316.2956: Violation of provisions relating to windshields, windows, and sunscreening material; penalties. – (1) – Any person who operates a motor vehicle on which, after June 20, 1984, material was installed in violation of ss. 316.2951-316.2954 commits a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

(2) – The replacement or repair of any material legally installed is not a violation of ss. 316.2951-316.2954.

(3) – Any person who sells or installs sunscreening material in violation of any provision of ss. 316.2951-316.2955 is guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

History – s. 1, ch. 84-296; s. 15, ch. 86-185; s. 211, ch. 99-248.

316.2957: Exemption for motor vehicle manufacturers. – The provisions of ss. 316.2951-316.2956 do not apply to the manufacturer’s tinting or glazing of motor vehicle windows or windshields which is otherwise in compliance with or permitted by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 205 as promulgated in 49 C.F.R. s. 571.205.

History – s. 1, ch. 84-296.

316.299: Rough surfaced wheels prohibited. – No person shall drive, propel, operate, or cause to be driven, propelled or operated over any paved or graded public road of this state any tractor engine, tractor or other vehicle or contrivance having wheels provided with sharpened or roughened surfaces, other than roughened pneumatic rubber tires having studs designed to improve traction without materially injuring the surface of the highway, unless the rims or tires of the wheels of such tractor engines, tractors, or other vehicles or contrivances are provided with suitable filler blocks between the cleats so as to form a smooth surface. This requirement shall not apply to tractor engines, tractors, or other vehicles or contrivances if the rims or tires of their wheels are constructed in such manner as to prevent injury to such roads. This restriction shall not apply to tractor engines, tractors, and other vehicles or implements used by any county or the Department of Transportation in the construction or maintenance of roads or to farm implements weighing less than 1,000 pounds when provided with wheel surfaces of more than 1/2 inch in width. A violation of this section is a noncriminal traffic infraction, punishable as a nonmoving violation as provided in chapter 318.

History – s. 1, ch. 71-135; s. 1, ch. 76-31; s. 212, ch. 99-248.

Note. – Former s. 316.290.